Department of Psychology

Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS)

A significant portion of Dr. Mihura and Meyer's research over the past few years focuses on their new Rorschach system, the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS; Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011), which was developed as a replacement for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) after Exner’s death in 2006.

Meyer, G. J., Viglione, D. J., Mihura, J. L, Erard, R. E., & Erdberg, P. (2011). Rorschach Performance Assessment System: Administration, coding, interpretation, and technical manual. Toledo, OH: Rorschach Performance Assessment System, LLC.

More can be learned about R-PAS at

Selected Current Research Projects


Meta-analysis is a set of procedures used to systematically review and statistically summarize the research findings in various fields of study, including psychology and medicine. The most extensive systematic review and meta-analyses of psychological test validity to date was conducted by MihuraMeyerDumitrascu, and Bombel (2013) on 65 Rorschach variables and published in the prestigious journal Psychological Bulletin. This landmark article resulted in the Rorschach critics lifting their call for a moratorium on the use of the Rorschach in clinical and forensic settings, and forms the empirical backbone for the variables in R-PAS (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg (2011).

Mihura, J. L., Meyer, G. J., Dumitrascu, N., & Bombel, G. (2013). The validity of individual Rorschach variables: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the comprehensive system. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 548-605. doi:10.1037/a0029406


Wood, J. M., Garb, H. N., Nezworski, M. T., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Duke, M. C. (2015). A second look at the validity of widely used Rorschach indices: Comment on Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel (2013). Psychological Bulletin, 141, 236 –249. doi:10.1037/a0036005

Mihura, J. L., Meyer, G. J., Bombel, G., & Dumitrascu, N. (2015). Standards, accuracy, and questions of bias in Rorschach meta-analyses: Reply to Wood, Garb, Nezworski, Lilienfeld, and Duke (2015). Psychological Bulletin, 141, 250-260. doi:10.1037/a0038445

Graduate students in the lab have also conducted Rorschach meta-analyses, including interrater reliability of the Mutuality of Autonomy scale (Bombel), Thought Disorder Index (Upton), and Elizur’s Hostility and Holt's aggression scales (Katko); and the validity of Aggressive Content (Kiss), the Rorschach Oral Dependency Scale [Oral Dependency Language] (Walsh), and the Mutuality of Autonomy scale (Graceffo). Two of these meta-analyses have been published:

Graceffo, R. A., Mihura, J. L, & Meyer, G. J. (2014). A meta-analysis of an implicit measure of personality functioning: The Mutuality of Autonomy Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96, 581-595. doi:10.1080/00223891.2014.919299

Katko, N. J., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L., & Bombel, G. (2009). The interrater reliability of Elizur's Hostility Systems and Holt's aggression variables: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 357-364. doi:10.1080/00223890902936116

A systematic validity review of Space Integration and Space Reversal has also been published:

Mihura, J. L., Dumitrascu, N., Roy, M., & Meyer, G. J. (2017, online). The centrality of the response process in construct validity: An illustration via the Rorschach space response. Journal of Personality Assessment. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2017.1306781

  • Dr. Mihura is looking for students or other collaborators who are interested in learning how to conduct meta-analyses for psychological tests. In July, 2017, Francesca Ales, doctoral student at the University of Turin, Italy, is working with Dr. Mihura on Rorschach criterion and construct validity meta-analyses! Dr. Mihura is also looking for other visiting scholars.


In this project we will develop a short-form series of Rorschach cards that utilize components of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) that assess for thought disorder and psychosis. Specifically, multiple preliminary series of 3-, 4-, and 5-card sets will be selected and evaluated for reliability and validity. We will then determine which series has the most optimal balance of reliability, validity, and utility. The end result of this endeavor will be a series of alternate form 3-, 4-, or 5-card Rorschach short-forms that will result in time savings and allow for evaluating alternate forms reliability. (Eblin, Ales)

  • Dr. Mihura is looking for students or other collaborators to assist in the development of TPAS to assess psychosis.

Meta-analysis of Personality Disorder Stability

This project is evaluating the extent to which personality disorder diagnoses and traits remain stable over time using results from more than 90 research samples. In addition, we are examining factors that may contribute to higher or lower levels of stability, including things like the duration of the retest interval, the age of the sample, the type of instrument used to assess personality disorder, and the type of statistic used to quantify stability. (Meyer, Hoelzle)


Rorschach Studies using the Johns Hopkins Precursor Data

Two dissertations have been completed using this data so far, both of which will be submitted for publication. It is possible to use this dataset for other projects. Of the dissertations using this dataset so far, one investigated the ability of Rorschach measures of hostility to predict cardiovascular problems (Katko) and the second investigated the ability of the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index to predict various problems in adaptive functioning and mortality (Bombel).

Rorschach Form Accuracy Ratings in Taiwanese and Chinese Samples

This study investigates Rorschach form accuracy judgments by asking the question of whether it is associated with acculturation level and previous exposure to the Rorschach. To test this hypotheses these Taiwanese and Chinese ratings were compared to ratings from other international judges and judges who varied in terms of level of experience with the test. This was done through examining patterns of correlations. (Hsiao, collaborative project with Su at AIU)

The Impact of Film Clips on Mood and Perception

This study investigates the impact of film clips on self-reported mood and inkblot perceptions on Rorschach. This line of research will both establish the extent to which inkblot perceptions are sensitive to transient affective states and also provide evidence for the validity of scores on the test to validly capture the emotional and psychological experience of the participants. (Hsiao)


Last Updated: 1/31/19