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Main Campus
4004 Nitschke Hall MS 312
1650 N. Westwood
Toledo, OH 43606-3390
Phone: (419) 530-8210
Fax: (419) 530-8206

Steven N. Kramer, Ph.D., P.E.

kramerProfessor Emeritus
Mechanical, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Department
Nitschke Hall 4039
University of Toledo
Toledo, OH 43606
Mail Stop 312

Phone: (419) 874-6535
FAX: (419) 874-2157
E-mail: steven.kramer@utoledo.edu 

2005 ASME Faculty Advisor of the Year

Biography

Dr. Steven N. Kramer is Professor Emeritus of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering at the University of Toledo. Dr. Kramer received his PhD degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1973 and has been at UT since that time. His industrial experience includes the IBM Corporation, Outboard Marine Corporation, Dunham Tool Company, Albany International Corporation, and has consulted for the Owens-Illinois Corporation.

Dr. Kramer's research activities include CAD of planar and spatial mechanisms, and various robotics application and simulation projects funded by local industry. He has published over 90 articles in various conference proceedings and archival journals.

Dr. Kramer has received several honors and awards. In 1984 he received the Outstanding Teaching Award at The University of Toledo and in 1985 he received the national Ralph R. Teetor Award for excellence from the Society of Automotive Engineers. Also in that year, he was also selected as the "Mechanical Engineer of the Year" by the Northwest Ohio Section of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. In 1986 Dr. Kramer received the ASME Faculty Advisor Award for Region Five and in 1988 he was chosen as the Outstanding Engineering Educator for the State of Ohio by the Ohio Society of Professional Engineers. In 1991 Dr. Kramer became the recipient of the South-Pointing Chariot Research Award in the area of Applied Mechanism and Robotics. In 1994 he received the Outstanding Advisor Award at The University of Toledo. In 1999 he received the first University of Toledo Professor of the Year Award from the UT Honors Program. Dr. Kramer is the only person in the history of the University of Toledo to have received the outstanding teaching, outstanding advising and professor of the year awards.

Dr. Kramer is active in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). He has served as the National Chairman of the Honors and Awards Committee for the Design Engineering Division, as Chairman of the Education Group for Region Five, and as a member of the ASME Regional Operating Board. He is also a member the Executive Board of the Northwest Ohio Section of ASME and is a member of the Design Automation Committee in the Design Engineering Division. In 1987 he was elected to Fellow Grade of ASME - a grade of membership limited to less than one-tenth-percent of its membership. Dr. Kramer also serves as ASME Faculty Advisor at UT.

At The University of Toledo, Dr. Kramer has served on numerous committees at the college and university level. He served as faculty advisor to the Student Section of the Society of Women Engineers from 1977 to 1990, and as Faculty Advisor to the ASME Student Section from 1979 to 1986 and from 1995 to the present. Dr. Kramer was a member of the Engineering Committee on Academic Personnel from 1980 to 1985 and a member of the University Committee on Academic Personnel from 1985 to 1987.

Research Interests

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF PLANAR AND SPATIAL MECHANISMS Projects include computer aided design and optimization of planar and spatial mechanisms to develop relationships for displacement, velocity and acceleration of planar and spatial mechanisms using various methods. The most popular and versatile method is the complex number method of mechanism synthesis. Other methods include algebraic, matrix, and the dual number method.

STUDY OF TOLERANCE ALLOWANCES AND TRANSMISSION ANGLES IN MECHANISMS In a qualitative sense, there is general agreement that the variations in link lengths of a mechanism (due to manufacturing tolerances) affect the mechanical error more when transmission angles are poor than when they are near optimum values. No one has done an exhaustive quantitative study of this. This is an excellent masters level project for someone interested in planar mechanisms.

TOLERANCE SENSITIVITY AS A DESIGN TOOL Many people have performed tolerance analyses on mechanisms, but there is a need to have tolerance sensitivity as a design tool. This would enable mechanism designers to design mechanisms which perform above a certain specified level of performance in the presence of tolerances.

APPLICATION OF OPTIMIZATION METHODS TO THE SOLUTION OF MECHANICAL DESIGN PROBLEMSNonlinear constrained optimization methods have been and can continue to be applied to the solution of important mechanical design problems. Currently, optimization techniques are available for continuous and discrete problems, and these can be used to solve many problems in the design area.

Publications

Journal Publications

  • "Finite Kinematic Synthesis of a Cycloidal Crank Mechanism for Function Generation," ASME Transactions, Journal of Engineering for Industry, Series B, Vol. 92, No. 3, August 1970, pp. 531-536. With G. N. Sandor.
  • "Deflection and Stress Analysis in High Speed Planar Mechanisms with Elastic Links", ASME Transactions, Journal of Engineering for Industry; Series B, Vol. 95; May 1973, pp. 541-548. With I. Imam and G. N. Sandor.
  • "Selective Precision Synthesis -A General Method of Optimization for Planar Mechanisms", ASME Transactions, Journal of Engineering for Industry, Series B, Vol. 97, No. 2, May 1975, pp. 689-701. With G. N. Sandor.
  • "Selective Precision Synthesis of the Four-Bar Motion Generator with Prescribed Input Timing", ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 101, No. 4, October 1979, pp. 614-618.
  • "Selective Precision Synthesis of Mechanism Satisfying Position and Velocity Constraints", International Journal of Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1979, pp. 161-170. With R. S. Schaefer.
  • "Complex Number Synthesis of Four-Bar Path Generating Mechanisms Adjustable for Multiple Tangential Circular Arcs." ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 104, No. 1, January, 1982, pp 185-191. With L. Huston.
  • "Development of the Variable-Rate Transymmetric Motion With Discretely Vanishing Shock," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions, and Automation in Design, Vol. 106, No. 1, March 1984, pp. 109-113.
  • "Kinematic Synthesis and Analysis of the Rack-and-Gear Mechanism for Function Generation," International Journal of Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1984, pp. 369-376. With D. Gibson.
  • "Symbolic Notation and Kinematic Equations of Motion of the Twenty-Two Spur Planetary Gear Trains," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions, and Automation in Design, Vol. 106, No. 3, September 1984, pp. 333-340. With D. Gibson.
  • "Detection and Elimination of Mechanism Defects in the Selective Precision Synthesis of Planar Mechanisms," International Journal of Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 20, No. 6, 1985, pp. 521-535. With A. Bajpai.
  • "Kinematic Synthesis and Analysis of the Rack and Gear Mechanism for Four Point Path Generation with Prescribed Input Timing," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions, and Automation in Design, Vol. 108, No. 1, March 1986, pp. 10-14. With M. Claudio.
  • "A Computer-Aided Design Technique for the Optimum Synthesis of RRSS Path Generating Spatial Mechanisms with Prescribed Input Timing," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions and Automation in Design, Vol. 108, No. 4, December 1986, pp. 538-542. With P. Premkumar.
  • "Kinematic Synthesis and Analysis of the Rack and Pinion Mechanism for Planar Path Generation and Function Generation for Six Precision Conditions," International Journal of Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol 22, No. 6, 1987, pp 563-568. With P. Duschl.
  • "Development of the Tri-Level Variable Rate Trajectory with Discretely Vanishing Shock for Optimum Design," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions and Automation in Design, Vol. 110, No. 1, March 1988, pp. 88-92. With R. Curran.
  • "Computer-Aided Design of the RSSR Function Generating Spatial Mechanism Using the Selective Precision Synthesis Method," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions and Automation in Design, Vol. 110, No. 4, December, 1988, pp 378-382. With S. Dhall.
  • "A Computer-Aided Design Technique for the Optimum Synthesis of Planar Four Bar Mechanisms Satisfying Specified Kinematic and Dynamic Conditions," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions and Automation in Design, Vol. 110, No. 3, September, 1988, pp. 263-268. With G. Rigelman.
  • "Selective Precision Synthesis of the Spatial Slider Crank Mechanism for Path and Function Generation," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions and Automation in Design, Vol. 110, No. 3, September, 1988, pp. 295-302. With P. Premkumar and S. Dhall.
  • "Position, Velocity and Acceleration Synthesis of the RRSS Spatial Path Generating Mechanism Using the Selective Precision Synthesis Method," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions and Automation in Design, Vol. 111 No. 1, March, 1989, pp 54-58. With P. Premkumar.
  • "A Generalized Expert System Shell for Implementing Mechanical Design Applications: Review, Introduction and Fundamental Concepts," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions and Automation in Design, Vol. 111, No. 3, Sept, 1989, pp 439-442. With P. Premkumar.
  • "Synthesis of Multi-Loop Spatial Mechanisms by Iterative Analysis: The RSSR-SS Path Generator," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 112, No. 1, March, 1990, pp 69-73. With P. Premkumar.
  • "Design and Analysis of the HCCC, RCCC AND PCCC Spatial Mechanisms for Function Generation", ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 112, No. 1, March, 1990, pp 74-78. With S. Dhall.
  • "Forward and Inverse Kinematic Solution of the Variable Geometry Truss Robot Based on an N-Celled Tetrahedron-Tetrahedron Truss," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions and Automation in Design, Vol. 112, No. 1, March, 1990, pp 16-22. With S. Jain.
  • "Sensitivity Analysis of the Burmester Equations of Planar Motion," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanical Design. Vol. 112, No. 3, September, 1990, pp 299-306. With S. Mahableshwarkar.
  • "Kinematic Synthesis and Analysis of the Rack and Pinion Multi-Purpose Mechanism", ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanical Design. Vol. 114, No. 3, September, 1992, pp 428-432. With G.K. Ananthasuresh.
  • "Inverse Kinematic Solution of the Tetrahedron Based Variable Geometry Truss Manipulator", ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanical Design. Vol. 114, No. 3, September, 1992, pp 433-437. With M. Subramaniam.
  • "Issues in Offline Task Simulation and Motion Code Downloading to Industrial Robots", Journal of Applied Mechanisms and Robotics, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1993. With G. Naganathan.
  • "Analysis and Optimal Synthesis of the RSCR Spatial Mechanism," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanical Design. Vol. 116, No. 1, March, 1994, pp 174-181. With G. K. Ananthasuresh.
  • "An Augmented Lagrange Multiplier Method for Mixed Integer Discrete Continuous Optimization and Its Application to Mechanical Design," ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 116, No. 2, June, 1994, pp 405-411. With B. K. Kannan.
  • "A Simple and Accurate Method for Determining Large Deflections in Compliant Mechanisms Subjected to End Forces and Moments", ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 120, No. 4, September, 1998, pp 392-400. With Anupam Saxena.

Publications in Conference Proceedings

  • "The Cycloidal Crank Mechanism," Proceedings of the First Applied Mechanisms Conference, Oklahoma State University, October 1969, Paper No. 16. With G. N. Sandor.
  • "Kinematic Synthesis of Watt's Mechanism," Proceedings of the Eleventh ASME Mechanisms Conference, Columbus, Ohio, November 1970, Paper No. 70-Mech-50.
  • "Geared Six-bar Design," Proceedings of the Second Applied Mechanisms Conference, Oklahoma State University, October 1971, Paper No. 25.
  • "Using the Selective Precision Synthesis Technique to Optimize Planar Mechanisms," Proceedings of the Fourth Applied Mechanisms Conference, University of Chicago, November 1975, Paper No. 14.
  • "Detection and Elimination of Mechanism Defects in the Selective Precision Synthesis of Planar Mechanisms," Proceedings of the Eighth Applied Mechanisms Conference, St. Louis, September 1983, Paper No. 10. With A. Bajpai.
  • "Nonlinear Programming Model for the Synthesis of Planar Mechanisms Satisfying Arbitrary Combinations of Position, Velocity and Acceleration Constraints," Proceedings of the Eighth Applied Mechanisms Conference, St. Louis, September 1983, Paper No. 43. With A. Bajpai.
  • "Kinematic Synthesis, Analysis and Optimization by Precision Point Respacing of the Rack and Gear Function Generating Mechanism," ASME Mechanisms Conference, Boston, October 1984, Paper 84-DET-134. With K. Hofmeister.
  • "Computer-Aided Design of Mechanisms at The University of Toledo," Proceedings of the ASME Computers in Engineering Conference, Las Vegas, August 1984, Volume 2, pp. 44-47.
  • "How to Eliminate Procrastination and Improve Student Presentations in the Senior Level Mechanical Engineering Design Course," Proceedings of the ASEE Computer Aided Engineering Conference, Atlanta, June 1985.
  • "Implementing Off-Line Robot Programming with a Computervision CAD/CAM System," Proceedings of the Ninth Applied Mechanisms Conference, Kansas City, October 1985, Paper No. 16. With R. Bhargava and P. White.
  • "Determination of Cross-Sectional Parameters of Robotic Arm Manipulators with Standard Form Segments for Minimum Torque or Minimum Time Based on Dynamic Performance," Proceedings of the Kinematics, Dynamics and Control of Mechanisms and Manipulators Conference, Troy, NY, June 1986. With P. Dastidar.
  • "A University/Industry Partnership in the Application of Robotic Technology to Manufacturing Processes," ASME Design Automation Conference, Columbus, October 1986, Paper 86-DET-108. With P. Dastidar, L. Ho, and S. Dhall.
  • "A Computer-Aided-Design Technique for the Optimum Synthesis of RRSS Path Generating Spatial Mechanisms with Prescribed Input Timing," ASME Mechanisms Conference, Columbus, October 1986, Paper 86-DET-13. With P. Premkumar.
  • "Application of Robotics and Manufacturing Technology - A University/Industry Partnership," Proceedings of the Applied Robotics & Factory Automation Conference, St. Louis, November 1986, Paper No. 1. With R. Amireddy.
  • "Selective Precision Synthesis - A General Design Method for Planar and Spatial Mechanisms," Proceedings of the 7th World Congress - Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Vol. 1, pp 275- 278. Sevilla, Spain, September 1987.
  • "Computer-Aided Design of the RSSR Function Generating Spatial Mechanism Using the Selective Precision Synthesis Method," Proceedings of the ASME Advances in Design Automation Conference, Vol. 2, pp 203-208. Boston, September 1987. With S. Dhall.
  • "A Computer-Aided Design Technique for the Optimum Synthesis of Planar Four Bar Mechanisms Satisfying Specified Kinematic and Dynamic Conditions," Proceedings of the ASME Advances in Design Automation Conference, Vol. 2, pp 209-214. Boston, September 1987. With G. Rigelman.
  • "Selective Precision Synthesis of the Spatial Slider Crank Mechanism for Path and Function Generation," Proceedings of the ASME Advances in Design Automation Conference, Vol. 2, pp 161-168. Boston, September 1987. With P. Premkumar and S. Dhall.
  • "Position, Velocity and Acceleration Synthesis of the RRSS Spatial Path Generating Mechanism Using the Selective Precision Synthesis Method," Proceedings of the Tenth Applied Mechanisms Conference, Vol. 3, Session 8A, pp 5.1-5.5. New Orleans, December 1987. With P. Premkumar.
  • "Applying the Selective Precision Synthesis Method to Spatial Motion Generating Mechanisms," Proceedings of the Tenth Applied Mechanisms Conference, Vol. 2, Session 4A, pp 4.1-4.6, New Orleans, December 1987. With P. Premkumar.
  • "Performance Issues in Implementing Industrial Manipulators", Proceedings of the Tenth Applied Mechanisms Conference, Vol. 3, Session 7B, pp 2.1-2.7, New Orleans, December 1987. With R. Amireddy and G. Naganathan.
  • "Analysis and Selective Precision Synthesis of the HCCC Function Generating Mechanism", Proceedings of the Tenth Applied Mechanisms Conference, Vol. 3, Session 8A, pp 1.1-1.7. New Orleans, December 1987. With S. Dhall.
  • "KANTHI: An Expert System to Configure Mechanisms for Generating Three Dimensional Motion," Proceedings of the Second Annual Expert Systems Conference and Exposition, pp. 341-350, Detroit, April, 1988. Re-presented and published by invitation at the First National Applied Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, November 1989, Paper 3C-5. With P. Premkumar.
  • "Design of a Variable Geometry Truss Robot Based on an N-Celled Tetrahedron-Tetrahedron Truss," Proceedings of the ASME Trends and Developments in Mechanisms, Machines and Robotics Conference, Orlando, Vol. 3, September 1988, pp 119-124. With S. Jain.
  • "A Generalized Expert System Shell for Implementing Mechanical Design Applications: Review, Introduction and Fundamental Concepts," Proceedings of the ASME Advances in Design Automation Conference, Orlando, September 1988, pp 309-314. With P. Premkumar.
  • "Synthesis of Multi-Loop Spatial Mechanisms by Iterative Analysis: The RSSR-SS Path Generator," Proceedings of the ASME Trends and Developments in Mechanisms, Machines and Robotics Conference, Orlando, Vol. 1, September 1988, pp 457-462. With P. Premkumar.
  • "Automatic Knowledge Acquisition in the Mechanical Design Domain," Proceedings of the Third Annual Expert Systems Conference, April 1989, Detroit. With P. Premkumar.
  • "Sensitivity Analysis of the Burmester Equations of Planar Motion," Advances in Design Automation - 1989, Proceedings of the ASME Design Technical Conference, Vol. 3, September, pp 379-386. With S. Mahableshwarkar.
  • "Forward and Inverse Kinematics of the Tetrahedron-Tetrahedron Variable Geometry Truss Manipulator," Proceedings of the First National Applied Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, November 1989, Paper 4A-2. With R. Sohmshetty.
  • "Planning and Execution of Cubic Spline Polynomial Joint Trajectories for an Industrial Manipulator," Proceedings of the First National Applied Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, November 1989, Paper 8C-3. With R. Rao and G. Naganathan.
  • "Screw Coordinate Approach to Real Time Control of Robotic Manipulators," Proceedings of the First National Applied Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, November 1989, Paper 8B-6. With C. Devasia and G. Naganathan.
  • "Mathematical Modeling and Computer Graphic Simulation of Real World Manufacturing Alternatives," Proceedings of the First National Applied Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, November 1989, Paper 6C-5. With G. Naganathan and seven graduate students.
  • "Kinematic Synthesis and Analysis of the Rack and Pinion Multi-Purpose Mechanism", ASME Conference Proceedings in the Cams, Gears, Robot and Mechanism Design: Volume 26, pp 41-46, Chicago, Sept, 1990. With G.K. Ananthasuresh.
  • "Integration of Computers in the ME Curriculum at The University of Toledo", Presented at the 1990 UPCAEDM Conference, Ann Arbor, Aug 13-14, Published in Conference Proceedings, 6 pages. With G. Naganathan.
  • "Analysis and Optimal Synthesis of the RSCR Spatial Mechanism," Proceedings of the 1991 ASME Design Automation Conference. DE-Vol. 32-2. pp. 371-381. With G.K. Ananthasuresh.
  • An Algorithm for Real-Time Obstacle Avoidance and Path Planning for Mobile Robots," Proceedings of the 1991 Design Automation Conference. DE-Vol. 32-2. pp. 507-514.
  • To appear in ASME Transactions, Journal of Mechanical Design. With Y. L. Srinivas.
  • "Computer Aided Design and Analysis of the Rack and Pinion Mechanism", Proceedings of the 1992 ASME Mechanisms Conference, Mechanism Design and Synthesis, DE-Vol. 46, pp. 275-279, Phoenix, September, 1992. With D. Srinivas.
  • "The Dynamic Equations of Motion and Actuation Scheme for the Tetrahedron Based Variable Geometry Truss Manipulator", Proceedings of the 1992 ASME Mechanisms Conference, Mechanism Design and Synthesis, DE-Vol. 45, pp. 173-178, Phoenix, September, 1992. With R. Sarma and V. Ramamurti.
  • "An Augmented Lagrange Multiplier Based Method for Mixed Integer Discrete Continuous Optimization and its Applications to Mechanical Design", ASME Advances in Design Automation, Albuquerque, September 1993. DE Vol. 65-2, pp 103-112. With B. K. Kannan.
  • "A General Symbolic Notation for the Kinematic Analysis of Planetary Gear Systems", Proceed-ings of the Third National Applied Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, November 1993, Cincinnati. With Michael J. Twining. Paper No. AMR-93-087.
  • "Fuzzy Synthesis of Mechanisms", Proceedings of the Third National Applied Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, November 1993, Cincinnati. With S. Krishnamurthi and K. Krishna. Paper No. AMR-93-094.
  • "Application of Fuzzy Set Theory to Planar and Spatial Mechanism Design", Proceedings of the ASME Mechanisms Conference, Minneapolis, September 1994. DE-Vol. 70, pp 153-160. With K. Krishna and S. Krishnamurthi.
  • "Design of a Knee Mechanism for a Knee Disarticulation Prosthesis", Proceedings of the ASME Mechanisms Conference, Minneapolis, September 1994. DE-Vol. 71, pp 455-462. With S. Srinivasan.

Publications - Other

  • "Selective Precision Synthesis of Planar Mechanisms Satisfying Practical Design Requirements", Doctoral Dissertation, August 1973; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan 74-12786.
  • "Proceedings of the Robotics & Flexible Automation Conference," Editor in Chief, University of Toledo, February, 1984.
  • "Development of a Vision Based Robotic System for Material Handling Applications," Ohio Journal of Science Abstracts, Vol. 85, No. 2, April 1985. With R. Bhargava.
  • "Design and Construction of a Laser Doppler Velocimeter Support System," Mechanical Engineering News, Mechanical Engineering Division of ASEE, Vol. 23, No. 1, February 1986, pp. 7-12. With M. Thompson.
  • "From the Junkyard to the Highway: Two Engines Get a New Lease on Life", U.S. Woman engineer, Society of Women Engineers Magazine, May/June 1989, pp. 21-22, New York.
  • Editor of Chapter 4 of the book "The First Forty Years of Modern Kinematics" published by John Wiley, 1993. Edited a 38 page chapter.

Consulting

Steven N. Kramer, PhD., P.E.
Traffic Accident Reconstructionist and Safety Expert and
Professor Emeritus of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Dr. Steven Kramer is Professor Emeritus of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering at the University of Toledo. He has been teaching at the University of Toledo since 1973 and he retired in May 2008. In addition to teaching mechanical engineering and doing research in kinematics, dynamics, mechanical design, computer-aided design, and robotics, he has assisted attorneys in the Toledo area, northwest Ohio and southeastern Michigan in motor vehicle accident reconstruction and product liability cases. He has enjoyed this activity and has been told numerous times that he has been very helpful.

Dr. Kramer has performed accident reconstructions in over 200 cases since 1979; about two-thirds for plaintiff and one-third for defense. He has given numerous depositions, has testified several times in court, and has been accepted as an expert on all of these occasions. Local attorneys who Dr. Kramer has worked with include Willis Jones, Bob Bahret, Joseph Albrechta, Marc Williams-Young, Pete Munger, Marty Holmes, Thomas and Dennis Murray, and Bill Kroncke to name a few. Dr. Kramer's strengths in accident reconstruction include his knowledge of forces, impact and motion of vehicles, his ability to communicate effectively with audiences of different backgrounds, his understanding of the judicial process, his availability on short notice, his promptness, and interest in assisting attorneys in this activity. Any one of these attorneys may be contacted as a reference for Dr. Kramer.

Dr. Kramer's knowledge of traffic accident reconstruction originates from his engineering knowledge (a PhD degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), from reading several key accident reconstruction manuals, and from his experience gained from previous cases. In addition, Dr. Kramer has a collection of about twenty Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) manuals and reference books on the subject. Dr. Kramer also has a camera which can be used at accident scenes or while viewing vehicles. Dr. Kramer teaches students in engineering about product liability laws in Ohio and is knowledgeable in all parts of ORC-2307 and the CFR's.

If you believe Dr. Kramer could assist you in a traffic accident reconstruction or product liability case, feel free to contact him at: steven.kramer@utoledo.edu , or by telephone at: 419-874-6535.

Last Updated: 4/11/17