Judith Herb College of Education



Follow Us

Contact Us

Department of Educational Foundations & Leadership
The University of Toledo
Main Campus
Gillham Hall, 5th floor
mapGoogle maps
carGuest parking 


Mailing address:
The University of Toledo
Main Campus
MS 921
Toledo, OH 43606-3390

Department Secretary:
Ruth Ann Easterwood
Gillham Hall Room 5000

Staff Webpage

Department Chair:

Dr. Edward Janak
Gillham Hall Room 5000C
(419) 530-4114


Purpose of TSOC 3000
The purpose of this course is to facilitate knowledge of the school as a social institution (including the impact that various social forces have upon it), its purpose in a democratic society, its historical development, and its political dynamics. Included in this purpose is the development of sensitivity and responsiveness to individual and cultural differences present in a diverse student population, the capacity to recognize, analyze, and address systemic injustices in schooling, and a commitment to equity and social justice.

Rationale for TSOC 3000
There exists an intimate relationship between the school and society.  An understanding of pedagogical practice isolated from an understanding of the social forces that influence the educational process and its organizational context yields a narrow understanding of that pedagogical practice.  Schools are profoundly shaped by larger social, economic, political, and ideological forces.  The recognition of this relationship is as old as the ancient Greek notion of paideia, capturing the fundamental nexus between education and culture.  American public schools, as well as private institutions, are major social institutions embedded in and influenced by the political economy and ideology of the society whose structures determine schools’ and other institutions’ limits and possibilities.  In addition, the dynamic relationship between schools and society is historical.  Therefore, it is essential that students understand schools as social institutions and how systemic forces shape curriculum and pedagogical practice through history.

 This understanding is especially critical if we are to promote democratic education in schools.  At the core of a democratic education is the capacity for critical reflection.  Reflection is a process of examination and analysis that is significantly informed by an understanding of the social-cultural and psychological phenomena that underlie and contextualize educational ideas, practices and problems.  It can be argued that one of the aims of the study of Foundations of Education is to understand schooling as it is shaped by social and ideological forces in order to enhance the reflective practice and thus decision-making of teachers and other educational practitioners. A social structural understanding of schools as institutions is a distinct body of knowledge.  This knowledge is necessary for an understanding of social injustice and in turn an understanding of pedagogical responses to injustice that seek to produce greater equity.  This understanding fleshes out the ideas of diversity and equity as elements of social justice. For example, appreciating and valuing diversity is not necessarily enough to foster an understanding of students in their socio-cultural, political context and as dynamic rather than fixed according to their social categorization (e.g., by “race,” ethnicity, gender, disability, or socio-economic status) at school.  The actions of teachers who focus on socio-cultural and political contexts will, it is hoped, convey to students that “different” does not mean “deficient.”

Goals of TSOC 3000
1)      The student will be able to describe her/his own complex definition of democracy, and what is essential about democratic education (i.e., cite and explain sources of their definition).
2)      The student will be able to analyze and evaluate the relationships between schools and societies (i.e., ideology, schooling, and political economy).
3)      The student will demonstrate a willingness to suspend judgment while working to understand and explicitly validate others’ views and beliefs based on their experiences.
4)      The student will demonstrate an openness to new challenges, new intellectual conflicts, and counter-evidence in order to promote a climate of fairness.

Last Updated: 12/29/15