Human Trafficking and Social Justice Institute

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Additional Resources

Contact Us

Main Campus
College of Health & Human Services

Health & Human Services Building

Room HH 2638

2801 West Bancroft St./MS 119

Toledo, Ohio 43606

Phone: 419.530.5590

Fax: 419.530.4141

HTSJInstitute@utoledo.edu

ABOUT Trafficking

What is Trafficking?

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Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) defines "Severe Forms of Trafficking in Persons" as:

Sex Trafficking: The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision or obtaining of a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act, in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion or in which the person forced to perform such an act is under the age of 18 years old.

Labor Trafficking: The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery.

 


Who do I contact if I think someone is being trafficked?

 National Human Trafficking Resource Center888-373-7888

"Your call will be answered live 24/7 by a specially trained Anti-Trafficking Hotline Advocates. Spanish speaking Anti-Trafficking Hotline Advocates are available; and for all other languages, the Anti-Trafficking Hotline Advocate will conference you in with a tele-interpreting service and continue the call in your preferred language. All communication with the NHTRC is strictly confidential. You do not need to provide your name or any identifying details about your situation unless you are comfortable doing so.

The Anti-Trafficking Hotline Advocate will ask questions to ensure that you are safe (if applicable) and determine what type of assistance you are looking for and how we can help. Once any immediate safety concerns have been addressed (if applicable), the Anti-Trafficking Hotline Advocate is there to listen and discuss what options are available to you, based on your unique situation and needs.

If you are reporting a tip or seeking services, the Anti-Trafficking Hotline Advocate may conduct a brief assessment of trafficking indicators. The Anti-Trafficking Hotline Advocate may follow up by:

  • providing safety planning recommendations and general emotional support,
  • referring or connecting you directly to local social and/or legal services,
  • making a report to our law enforcement contacts,
  • providing technical assistance and resources.

The Anti-Trafficking Hotline Advocate will not take any action without your consent, except in circumstances where we suspect child abuse or if we have reason to believe there is imminent harm to you or others. If you just want to talk, we are here to listen. The NHTRC is not a government entity. We are not law enforcement, immigration or an investigative agency. We are not a direct victim service provider. We help individuals access direct services through our extensive referral network and we facilitate reporting of potential human trafficking tips to specialized law enforcement agencies."

For Children
    Lucas County Children’s Services -    419-213-3200
    Local Child Exploitation Task Force - 419-243-6123 

 Additional Resource Info

 


Quick Facts – Sex Trafficking

 “Sex trafficking occurs when a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud or coercion if the victim is 18 years of age or older; & any minor who performs a commercial sex act, is federally defined as a victim of sex trafficking, regardless of the use of force, fraud or coercion. The term “commercial sex act” is the giving or receiving of anything of value (money, drugs, shelter, food, clothes, etc.) to any person in exchange for a sex act. Commercial sex acts may include prostitution, pornography, and sexual performance. Some forms of sex trafficking include pimp-controlled trafficking, gang-controlled trafficking, familial trafficking (trafficked by the family, generally for basic needs or drugs); and what is commonly referred to as “survival sex” (minor engaging in commercial sex acts without the control of a pimp in order to meet his/her basic needs such as food or shelter).” (excerpt from Shared Hope International, 2015)

HOW: Sex traffickers use violence, threats, lies, debt bondage, and other forms of coercion to compel adults and children to engage in commercial sex acts against their will. The situations that sex trafficking victims face vary dramatically. Many victims become romantically involved with someone who then forces or manipulates them into prostitution. Others are lured in with false promises of a job, such as modeling or dancing. Some are forced to sell sex by their parents or other family members. They may be involved in a trafficking situation for a few days or weeks, or may remain in the same trafficking situation for years.

WHO: Victims of sex trafficking can be U.S. citizens, foreign nationals, women, men, children, and LGBTQ individuals. Vulnerable populations are frequently targeted by traffickers, including runaway and homeless youth, as well as victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, war, or social discrimination. 

WHERE: Sex trafficking occurs in a range of venues including fake massage businesses, via online ads or escort services, in residential brothels, on the street or at truck stops, or at hotels and motels. 

Key Statistics

  • Prevalence rates are hard to assess and current national & international prevalence efforts amount to best guesses
  • Since 2007, the National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline, operated by Polaris, has received reports of 14,588 sex trafficking cases inside the United States. Find more hotline statistics here.
  • In 2014, the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children estimated that 1 in 6 endangered runaways reported to them were likely sex trafficking victims.
  • Globally, the International Labor Organization estimates that there are 4.5 million people trapped in forced sexual exploitation globally.
  • In a 2014 report, the Urban Institute estimated that the underground sex economy ranged from $39.9 million in Denver, Colorado, to $290 million in Atlanta, Georgia.”
  • A 2012 report in Ohio on those under 18 who are at risk for or entrapped in sex trafficking, estimates that 1,078 youth in Ohio are trapped in the sex trafficking industry each year & about 3,000 are at risk of being trafficked (Williamson & Purdue, 2012)

("Quick Facts" is an excerpt from Polaris Project, 2015)

Helpful Links

FAQ about Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking - Shared Hope International 

Sex Trafficking Terms - Shared Hope International 

 


Quick Facts – Labor Trafficking

 "HOW: Labor traffickers – including recruiters, contractors, employers, and others – use violence, threats, lies, debt bondage, or other forms of coercion to force people to work against their will in many different industries. Labor traffickers often make false promises of a high-paying job, exciting education, or travel opportunities to lure people into horrendous working conditions. Yet, victims find that the reality of their jobs proves to be far different than promised and must frequently work long hours for little to no pay. Their employers exert such physical or psychological control – including physical abuse, debt bondage, confiscation of passports or money – that the victim believes they have no other choice but to continue working for that employer. Employers also frequently threatened to involve the authorities to deport or jail victims, further conditioning the victims that they can’t reach out for help no matter what happens to them. Often traffickers know the victims family and have threatened to hurt them or enforce the worker’s debt with their family if they ever leave. 

WHO: U.S. citizens, foreign nationals, women, men, children, and LGBTQ individuals can be victims of labor trafficking. Vulnerable populations are frequently targeted by traffickers. Immigration status, recruitment debt, isolation, war, poverty, and a lack of strong labor protections are just some of the vulnerabilities that can lead to labor trafficking.

WHERE: Labor trafficking occurs in numerous industries in the U.S. and globally. In the United States, common types of labor trafficking include people forced to work in homes as domestic servants, farmworkers coerced through violence as they harvest crops, or factory workers held in inhumane conditions. Labor trafficking has also been reported in door-to-door sales crews, restaurants, construction work, carnivals, and even health and beauty services. 

Key Statistics

  • Prevalence rates are hard to assess and current national & international prevalence efforts amount to best guesses
  • Globally, the International Labor Organization estimates that there are 14.2 million people trapped in forced labor in industries including agriculture, construction, domestic work and manufacturing.
  • The U.S. Department of Labor has identified 136 goods from 74 countries made by forced and child labor.
  • Since 2007, the National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline, operated by Polaris, received reports of more than 4,000 labor trafficking cases inside the United States. Find more hotline statistics here.
  • In a 2014 study from the Urban Institute of 122 closed cases of labor trafficking, Hidden in Plain Sight, 71% of the labor trafficking victims in the study entered the United States on lawful visas. These victims paid an average of $6,150 in recruitment fees for jobs in the United States. 
  • In a study from San Diego State University, 31% of undocumented, spanish-speaking migrant workers interviewed in San Diego County had experienced labor trafficking.”

(“Quick Facts” is an excerpt from Polaris Project, 2015)

Additional Info
Even people who are in the country illegally will be treated as victims of a crime, just like those on visas or U.S citizen victims of human trafficking. If the undocumented victim cooperates with authorities in giving them information & testifying about the crime, they can qualify for several different visa statuses & remain in the country for years, such as a T-Visa or a U-Visa. 

 


Human Trafficking Research and Statistics

 Current Overview of Trafficking Laws and Protections for Victims

2014 TIP Report - U.S Department of State

2012 Report - Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in Ohio

2010 Report - Prevalence of Human Trafficking in Ohio

Click to view more reports; or the work of other Anti-Human Trafficking Organizations 

 


Where can I get involved?

 Get involved 

 

Last Updated: 7/25/17