Department of Psychology

Hearing and Sound Localization in Animals

Contents:

  • Review Articles
  • Audiograms
  • Sound Localization
  • Auditory Perception
  • Methods

For copies of articles, download or e-mail Henry.Heffner@utoledo.edu

Review Articles

Heffner, H. E. & Heffner, R. S. (2016). The evolution of mammalian sound localization. Acoustics Today, 12, 20-27, 35.

Heffner, H. E. & Heffner, R. S. (2014). The behavioral study of mammalian hearing. In A. N. Popper & R. R. Fay (Eds.) Perspectives on Auditory Research. Springer: NY, pp. 269-285.

Heffner, H. E. and Heffner, R. S. (2007). Hearing ranges of laboratory animals. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 46, 11-13.

Heffner, H. E. & Heffner, R. S. (2008). High-frequency hearing. In P. Dallos, D. Oertel, and R. Hoy (Eds.) Handbook of the Senses: Audition. Elsevier: NY, pp. 55-60.

Heffner, R. S. (2004). Primate hearing from a mammalian perspective.The Anatomical Record Part A, 281A:1111-1122.

Heffner, H. E. and Heffner, R. S. (2003). Audition. In S. F. Davis (Ed.)Handbook of Research Methods in Experimental Psychology, pp. 413-440. Blackwell: Malden, MA

Heffner, H. E. and Heffner, R. S. (2001). Behavioral assessment of hearing in mice. In: J.F. Willott (Ed.) Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. (pp. 19-29). CRC Press: Boca Raton FL.

Heffner, H. E. (1998). Auditory awareness in animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 57, 259-268.

Heffner, H. E. & Heffner, R. S. (1998). Hearing. In G. Greenberg and M. M. Haraway (Eds.), Comparative Psychology, A Handbook. (pp. 290-303). Garland: New York.

Heffner, R. S. (1997). Comparative study of sound localization and its anatomical correlates in mammals. Acta Otolaryngological(Stockholm), Suppl. 532, 46-53.

Heffner, R. S., and Heffner, H. E. (1992). Evolution of sound localization in mammals. In D. B. Webster, R. R. Fay, and A. N. Popper (Eds.), The Evolutionary Biology of Hearing. (pp. 691-715). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Heffner, R. S. and Heffner, H. E. (1992). Visual factors in sound localization in mammals. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 317, 219-232.

Heffner, H. E., and Heffner, R. S. (1992). Auditory perception. In C. Phillips and D. Piggins (Eds.), Farm Animals and the Environment.(pp.159-184). Wallingford UK: CAB International.

Heffner, R. S., and Masterton, R. B. (1990). Sound localization in mammals: Brain-stem mechanisms. M.A. Berkley and W.C. Stebbins (Eds.) Comparative perception, Vol I: Basic Mechanisms. (pp. 285-314). New York: Wiley & Sons.

Masterton, B., Heffner, H., and Ravizza, R. (1969). The evolution of human hearing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 45, 966-985.

Audiograms

Heffner, H. E., Koay, G., & Heffner, R. S. (2016).Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulates) do not hear infrasound: The audiogram from 8 Hz to 10 kHz. Journal of Comparative Physiology A.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., & Heffner, H. E. (2014). Hearing in alpacas (Vicugna pacos): audiogram, localization acuity, and use of binaural locus cues. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 135, 778-788.

Hill, E. M., Koay, G., Heffner, R. S., & Heffner, H. E. (2014). Audiogram of the Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) from 2 Hz to 9 kHz. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 863-870.

Heffner, H. E., Koay, G., Hill, E. M., and Heffner, R. S. (2013). Conditioned suppression/avoidance as a method for testing hearing in birds: the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). Behavior Research Methods, 45, 383-392.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., & Heffner, H. E. (2013). Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. IV: The Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus.Hearing Research, 296, 42-50.

Heffner, H. E. and Heffner, R. S. (2010). Response to Manley: An evolutionary perspective on middle ears. Hearing Research, 270, 1.

Heffner, R. S. and Heffner, H. E. (2010). Explaining high-frequency hearing. Anatomical Record, 293, 2080-2082.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., and Heffner, H. E. (2010). Use of binaural cues for sound localization in two species of Phyllostomidae: The greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus, and the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 124, 447-454.

Heffner Jr, H., and Heffner, H. E. (2010). The behavioral audiogram of whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127, EL111-EL114.

Heffner, R.S., Koay, G. and Heffner, H.E. (2006). Hearing in large (Eidolon helvum) and small (Cynopterus brachyotis) non-echolocating fruit bats. Hearing Research, 221, 17-25.

Heffner, H. E. And Heffner, R. S. (2004). Reply to J. Guo and Y. Chen.Hearing Research, 198, 146-147.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., and Heffner, H. E.. (2003).Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. III: Artibeus jamaicensis. Hearing Research.184, 113-122.

Koay, G., Heffner, R. S., Bitter, K. S., and Heffner, H.E. (2003). Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. II: Carollia perspicillata. Hearing Research, 178, 27-34.

Koay, G., Heffner, R. S., Bitter, K. and Heffner, H. E. (2002). Hearing in the greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus: Audiogram, temporal integration, sound localization, and use of binaural cues. Abstracts of the Twenty Fifth Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 25, 210.

Koay, G., Heffner, R.S., and Heffner, H.E. (2002). Behavioral audiograms of homozygous medJ mutant mice with sodium channel deficiency and unaffected controls. Hearing Research, 171, 111-118.

Koay, G., Bitter, K.S., Heffner, H.E., and Heffner, R.S. (2002). Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. I: Phyllostomus hastatus. Hearing Research, 171, 96-102.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., Diener, J., and Heffner, H. E. (2001). The ability of the African hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris, to detect and localize pure tones. Abstracts of the Twenty Fourth Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 24, 263-264.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., and Heffner, H. E. (2001). Audiograms of five species of rodents: Implications for the evolution of hearing and the encoding of pitch. Hearing Research, 157, 138-152.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G, and Heffner, H.E. (1999). Temporal integration in the echolocating Old World fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus. Abstracts of the Twenty Second Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 29.

Jackson, L. L., Heffner, R. S., and Heffner, H. E. (1999). Free-field audiogram of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 106, 3017-3023.

Koay, G., Heffner, R. S., and Heffner, H. E. (1998). Hearing in a megachiropteran fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus)Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112, 371-382.

Koay, G., Heffner, H. E., and Heffner, R. S. (1997). Audiogram of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). Hearing Research, 105, 202-210.

Jackson, L. L., Heffner, H. E., and Heffner, R. S. (1997). Audiogram of the fox squirrel (Sciurus niger). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 111, 100-104.

Heffner, H. E., Heffner, R. S., Contos, C., & Ott, T. (1994). Audiogram of the hooded Norway rat. Hearing Research, 73, 244-247.

Heffner, R.S., Heffner, H.E., Contos, C., & Kearns, D. (1994). Hearing in prairie dogs: transition between surface and subterranean rodents.Hearing Research, 73, 185-189.

Heffner, R. S. and Heffner, H. E. (1993). Degenerate hearing and sound localization in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), with an overview of central auditory structures. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 331, 418-433.

Heffner, R. S. and Heffner, H. E. (1992). Hearing and sound localization in blind mole rats. Hearing Research, 62, 206-216.

Heffner, R. S. & Heffner, H. E. (1991). Behavioral hearing range of the chinchilla. Hearing Research, 52, 13-16.

Heffner, R. S. & Heffner, H. E. (1990). Hearing in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) and goats (Capra hircus). Hearing Research, 48, 231-240.

Heffner, R. S. & Heffner, H. E. (1990). Vestigial hearing in a fossorial mammal, the pocket gopher, (Geomys bursarius). Hearing Research, 46, 239-252.

Heffner, R. S. & Heffner, H. E. (1985). Hearing range of the domestic cat. Hearing Research, 19, 85-88.

Heffner, R. S, & Heffner, H. E. (1985). Hearing in mammals: the least weasel. Journal of Mammalogy, 66, 745-755.

Heffner, H. E., & Heffner, R. S. (1985). Hearing in two cricetid rodents: wood rat (Neotoma floridana) and grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 99, 275-288.

Heffner, H. E., & Heffner, R. S. (1983). The hearing ability of horses. Equine Practice, 5, 27-32.

Heffner, H. E. (1983). Hearing in large and small dogs: Absolute thresholds and size of the tympanic membrane. Behavioral Neuroscience, 97, 310-318.

Heffner, R. S., & Heffner, H. E. (1983). Hearing in large mammals: Horses (Equus caballus) and cattle (Bos taurus). Behavioral Neuroscience, 97, 299-309.

Heffner, R. S., & Heffner, H. E. (1982). Hearing in the elephant: Absolute sensitivity, frequency discrimination, and sound localization.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 96, 926-944.

Heffner, H., & Heffner, R. (1981). Functional interaural distance and high- frequency hearing in the elephant. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 70, 1794-1795.

Heffner, H., & Masterton, B. (1980). Hearing in glires: domestic rabbit, cotton rat, feral house mouse, and kangaroo rat. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 68, 1584-1599.

Heffner, R., & Heffner, H. (1980). Hearing in the elephant (Elephas maximus)Science, 208, 518-520.

Heffner, R., Heffner, H., & Masterton, B. (1971). Behavioral measurements of absolute and frequency difference thresholds in guinea pig. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 4, 1888-1895.

Heffner, H., & Masterton, B. (1970). Hearing in primitive primates: Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang) and Potto (Perodictius potto)Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 71, 175-182.

Heffner, H., Ravizza, R., & Masterton, B. (1969). Hearing in primitive mammals, IV: Bushbaby (Galago senegalensis). Journal of Auditory Research, 9, 19-23.

Heffner, H., Ravizza, R., & Masterton, B. (1969). Hearing in primitive mammals, III: Tree shrew (Tupaia glis). Journal of Auditory Research, 9, 12-18.

Ravizza, R., Heffner, H., & Masterton, B. (1969). Hearing in primitive mammals, II: Hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus). Journal of Auditory Research, 9, 8-11.

Ravizza, R., Heffner, H., & Masterton, B. (1969). Hearing in primitive mammals, I: Opossum (Didelphis virginianus). Journal of Auditory Research, 9, 1-7.

Sound Localization

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., & Heffner, H. E. (2014). Hearing in alpacas (Vicugna pacos): audiogram, localization acuity, and use of binaural locus cues. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 135, 778-788.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., & Heffner, H. D. (2014). Sound localization in common vampire bats: Acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 137, 42-52.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., and Heffner, H. E. (2010). Use of binaural cues for sound localization in large and small non-echolocating bats: Eidolon helvum and Cynopterus brachyotis. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127, 3837-3845.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., and Heffner, H. E. (2010). Use of binaural cues for sound localization in two species of Phyllostomidae: The greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus, and the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 124, 447-454.

Wesolek, C., M., Koay, G., Heffner, R. S., and Heffner, H. E. (2010). Laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) do not use binaural phase differences to localize sound. Hearing Research, 265, 54-62.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G. and Heffner, H. E. (2008). Sound localization acuity and its relation to vision in large and small fruit-eating bats: II Non-echolocating species, Eidolon helvum and Cynopterus brachyotis.Hearing Research, 241, 80-86.

Heffner, H. E. and Heffner, R. S. (2005). The sound-localization ability of cats. Journal of Neurophysiology, 94, 3653-3655.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., Diener, J., and Heffner, H. E. (2001). The ability of the African hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris, to detect and localize pure tones. Abstracts of the Twenty Fourth Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 24, 263-264.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., and Heffner, H. E., (2001). Sound-localization acuity changes with age in C57BL/6J mice. In: J.F. Willott (Ed.) Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. (pp. 31-35). CRC Press: Boca Raton FL.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., and Heffner, H. E. (2001). Sound localization in a new-world bat, Artibeus jamaicensis: acuity, use of binaural cues, and its relationship to vision. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109, 412-421.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., and Heffner, H. E. (1999).Sound localization in an old-world fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus: Acuity, use of binaural cues, and the relation to vision. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 113, 297-306.

Koay, G., Kearns, D, Heffner, R. S., and Heffner, H. E. (1998). Passive sound localization ability of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus).Hearing Research, 119, 37-48.

Jackson, L.L., Heffner, H.E., and Heffner, R.S. (1996). Species differences in the upper limit of binaural phase discrimination in mammals. Abstracts of the Nineteenth Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 63.

Heffner, R. S., Koay, G., and Heffner, H. E. (1996).Sound localization in chinchillas, III: Effect of pinna removal. Hearing Research, 99, 13-21.

Gandy, R.A., Heffner, R.S., and Heffner, H.E. (1995). Sound localization in domestic rabbits: Left/right, front/back, and vertical. Abstracts of the Eighteenth Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 64.

Jackson, L.L., Heffner, H.E., and Heffner, R.S. (1995). Vertical sound localization in the fox squirrel (Sciurus niger). Abstracts of the Eighteenth Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 64.

Heffner, R.S., Heffner, H.E., and Koay, G. (1995). Sound localization in chinchillas, II: Front/back and vertical localization. Hearing Research, 88, 190-198.

Heffner, R. S., Heffner, H. E., Kearns, D., Vogel, J. & Koay, G. (1994).Sound localization in chinchillas, I: Left/right discriminations. Hearing Research, 80, 247-257.

Heffner, R. S. & Heffner, H. E. (1993). Degenerate hearing and sound localization in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), with an overview of central auditory structures. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 331, 418-433.

Heffner, R. S. & Heffner, H. E. (1992). Hearing and sound localization in blind mole rats. Hearing Research, 62, 206-216.

Heffner, R. S. & Heffner, H. E. (1992). Hearing in large mammals: Sound-localization acuity in cattle (Bos taurus) and goats (Capra hircus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 106, 107-113.

Heffner, R. S. & Heffner, H. E. (1990). Vestigial hearing in a fossorial mammal, the pocket gopher, (Geomys bursarius). Hearing Research, 46, 239-252.

Heffner, R. S., & Heffner, H. E. (1989). Sound localization, use of binaural cues and the superior olivary complex in pigs. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 33, 248-258.

Heffner, R. S., & Heffner, H. E. (1988). Interaural phase and intensity discrimination in the horse using dichotically presented stimuli. Abstracts of the Eleventh Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 233.

Heffner, R. S., & Heffner, H. E. (1988). Sound localization acuity in the cat: Effect of azimuth, signal duration, and test procedure. Hearing Research, 36, 221-232.

Heffner, R. S., & Heffner, H. E. (1988). Sound localization and the use of binaural cues by the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Behavioral Neuroscience, 102, 422-428.

Heffner, R. S., & Heffner, H. E. (1988).Sound localization in a predatory rodent, the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster).Journal of Comparative Psychology, 102. 66-71.

Heffner, R. S., & Heffner, H. E. (1987). Auditory function in albino cats. Abstracts of the Tenth Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 217.

Heffner, R. S., & Heffner, H. E. (1987). Localization of noise, use of binaural cues, and a description of the superior olivary complex in the smallest carnivore, the least weasel (Mustela nivalis). Behavioral Neuroscience, 101, 701-708, 744-745.

Heffner, R. S., & Heffner, H. E. (1986). Localization of tones by horses: Use of binaural cues and the superior olivary complex. Behavioral Neuroscience, 100, 93-103, 137.

Heffner, H. E., & Heffner, R. S. (1985). Sound localization in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Hearing Research, 19, 151-155.

Heffner, H. E., & Heffner, R. S. (1984). Sound localization in large mammals: Localization of complex sounds by horses. Behavioral Neuroscience, 98, 541-555.

Heffner, R., Heffner, H., & Stichman, N. (1982).Role of the elephant pinna in hearing, Animal Behaviour, 30, 628-630.

Heffner, R. S., & Heffner, H. E. (1982). Hearing in the elephant: Absolute sensitivity, frequency discrimination, and sound localization.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 96, 926-944.

Auditory Perception

Heffner, H., & Whitfield, I. C. (1976). Perception of the missing fundamental by cats. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 59, 915-919.

Heffner, H. (1975). Perception of meaningful sounds by dogs. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 58, 124. 

Methods

Heffner, H. E., Koay, G., Hill, E. M., and Heffner, R. S. (2013). Conditioned suppression/avoidance as a method for testing hearing in birds:the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).Behavior Research Methods, 45, 383-392.

Heffner, H. E., Koay, G., and Heffner, R.S. (2006). Behavioral assessment of hearing in mice – Conditioned suppression. In J. Crawley et al. (Eds.) Current Protocols in Neuroscience. Suppl. 34, (pp. 8.21D.1-8.21D.15.) Wiley & Sons:NY.

Heffner, H. E. & Heffner, R. S. (1995).Conditioned avoidance. In G. M. Klump, R. J. Dooling, R. R. Fay, and W. C. Stebbins (Eds.), Methods in Comparative Psychoacoustics. (pp. 73-87). Birkhäuser:Basel.

Thompson, M., Porter, B., O'Bryan, J., Heffner, H. E., & Heffner, R. S. (1990). A syringe-pump food-paste dispenser. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 22, 449-450.

Thompson, G., Heffner, H., & Masterton, B. (1974). An automated localization chamber. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 6, 550-552.

Last Updated: 8/8/17