Department of Psychology

Harvard L. Armus

Picture of Dr. ArmusPh.D., University of Iowa, 1955
Emeritus Professor

Office: UH 1120
Phone: 419-530-2714
Fax: (419) 530-8479

Mailing Address:
Department of Psychology
University of Toledo
2801 West Bancroft St.
Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390

 Research Interests

  • learning
  • reinforcement processes
  • effect of response effort on behavior
  • secondary reinforcement
  • learning in paramecia
  • conflict and frustration

Selected Publications

Mingee, C.M. & Armus, H.L. (2009). Unsuccessful reinforcement of a discrete action in paramecia (P. caudatum). Psychological Reports, 105, 533-538

Armus, H. L., Montgomery, A. R. & Jellison, J. L. (2007). Discrimination learning in paramecia (P. caudatum). The Psychological Record, 56, 489-498.

Armus, H. L., Montgomery, A. R. & Gurney, R. L. (2006). Discrimination learning and extinction in paramecia (P. caudatum). Psychological Reports, 98, 705-711.

Armus, H. L. & Montgomery, A. R. (2001). Aversive and attractive properties of electrical stimulation for Paramecium Caudatum. Psychological Reports, 89, 342-344.

Armus, H. L. (2001). Effect of response effort on the reward value of distinctively flavored food pellets. Psychological Reports, 88, 1031-1034.

Last Updated: 6/27/22