Carlos A. C. Baptista, M.D., M.S., Ph.D., MPH


Department of Medical Education
Office: 183 Block Health Science Building
Tel: 419-383-4283
Online Profile    

1981:  M.D., Itajuba, School of Medicine, Brazil
1986:  M.S., Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
1987:  Ph.D., University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
1993:  Post-Doc., Medical College of Ohio, Molecular Genetics of Hypertension (NIH Training Grant) -J. P. Rapp, Ph.D.
1994:  Post-Doc., Medical College of Georgia,  Developmental Biology - M. L. Kirby, Ph.D.
2001:  Fellow, Research Center for Education Technology, Kent State University.
2002-2003: Fellow, Teaching Scholar Fellowship, Medical University of Ohio.

Research Interests:
I have both bench and educational research interests. My research interest involve the role of neural crest cells in the development of the outflow tract of the heart. The pioneer research of Dr. Margaret Kirby established that neural crest cells migrate to the heart outflow tract and the absence of these cells result in cardiac congenital malformations. My interest lies in the development of theplastic parasympathetic cardiac ganglia (also originated from cardiac neural crest) and its role if any in the development of the coronary arteries. Waldo et al. (1990 and 1994) showed a direct relationship between the presence of the cardiac parasympathetic ganglia and the formation and plasticity of the proximal coronary artery stem. In 1999, Poelmann et al. contradicted these findings; Using the mutant mouse MASH (homozygous animals are born without parasympathetic cardiac ganglia), I found that the heterozygous animals have a reduced number of cardiac ganglia. In order to establish when and how the cardiac ganglia develop in these animals, I studied the presence of ganglia in different stages of the developing heart. This research was supported by the American Heart Association.

My more recent research interest has been Educational Research. In 2001, a grant from Ohio Board of Regents and the Research Center for Educational Technology was awarded to study and identify conditions that influence web-based educational outcomes in distance learning. Our findings showed that the preferred learning channels of students and faculty (kinesthetic and visual) have some influence on the utilization and appreciation of web-based material development.

A major focus of my research is to know what influences multimedia, especially animations, have on memory retention over time. The multimedia effect described by several researchers state that students exposed to multimedia explanations are able to build two different mental representations, a verbal model and a visual model. Researchers believe that the capacity for better retrieve information lies in the number of connections created between these two models. Two groups of students, one exposed and other not exposed to multimedia should have different memory retention. Students exposed to multimedia should retain the information longer than the students not exposed to multimedia. I am testing this theory by exposing one group of students to lectures and text and exposing another group of students to a multimedia unit containing videos and animations.

Teaching Interests:

I enjoy interdisciplinary work and view my academic career and my educational background as the foundation for such integrated activity.  My current teaching interests involve Gross Anatomy which embodies the following courses: 

  • Human Structure and Development (Block 2) Course Director
  • HDSC 5210 - Scientific Foundations of Human Donation Science 
  • Anatomy for Physician Assistants
  • INDI-555 - Anatomy and Pathophysiology (MSBS) 
  • INDI-515 – Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology to Medical Physics
  • MedStart Program
  • MedStarz Program
  • Fundamentals of Clinical Practice Course

In addition, I currently facilitate in the problem-based pathophysiology course throughout the year, teach Congenital Heart Defects in the Organ Systems (Block 7) course and facilitate in the Fundamental of Clinical Practice course.

I am the Course Director and primary teacher for HDSC-521 Scientific and Clinical Foundations for Human Organ Donation and Transplantation in the Human Donation Science Certificate Program. I teach the basic science component of the course, which includes anatomy, physiology, pathology, pathophysiology, and neurosciences.  I am also Course Director for the Graduate Pathophysiology Course.

Educational Technology Interests:
A critical question in medical education today is how best to incorporate emerging technologies into medical students education. Today's student populations have changed drastically. They are no longer the community that our educational system was designed to teach.  The students of today are born into the digital age and they expect their educators to speak the digital language of computers, internet and video games. Students expect their learning to be engaging and interactive.

I have a special interest in designing interactive learning environments using multimedia, hypermedia, and web-based technologies and investigate the impact of using such new media technologies on teaching and learning. Since 1998, I have been developing Flash® animations for use as stand alone tools in my lectures or  as a part of “units” published in the academic intranet and in the internet. These animations are of great help in explaining difficult concepts in anatomy, pathology and physiology. (Please see Online Portfolio above examples of these animations). Do animations appeal equally to the visual, auditory, or kinesthetic learner? Do animations contribute to retention of knowledge? These are some of the questions I would like to answer in the near future.

Another issue that I am particular interested in is Electronic Response System, a hand-held electronic device used to engage student participation and accumulate feedback, transforming lecture hall PowerPoint presentations into a powerful vehicles for two way communication.  Is learning enhanced or attention improved when students use this device?

References (Partial List):

Begeman, M.S., Andrews, L.T., Klingler, J.W., Baptista, C.A.C., & Leighton, R.F.  (1990) Stimulation and computer graphics in medical education:  A visual presentation metaphor. Proceeding of Computers in Cardiology, Sept. 23-26, 1990, Chicago, IL, pages 607-610.

Williams, G., Andrews, T., Klingler, J., Kubit, T., Begeman, M., Zeiss, J., Potvin, W.,  Baptista,C.A.C., Leighton, R., & Brinker, R.  (1990)  Development of computer workstations for the analysis of magnetic  resonance images acquired in radiology.  Proceedings of the National Computer Graphic Association annual conference 215-223.

Teofilovski-Parapid, G., Baptista, C.A.C., DiDio, L.J.A., & Vaughan, C.  (1991)  The membranaceous portion of the interventricular septum and its relationship with the aortic valve in humans.  Surg Radiol Anat 13:23-28.

Tose, D., DiDio, L.J.A., Baptista, C.A.C., & Miglino, M.A.  (1991)  Atrioventricular and ventriculo-atrial branches of the coronary arteries in human hearts.  Acta Anat 140(3):294-296.

Baptista, C.A.C., DiDio, L.J.A., & Prates, J.C.  (1991)  Types of division of the left coronary artery and the ramus diagonalis of the human heart.  Jpn Heart Journal 32(3):323-335. 

Baptista, C.A.C. & DiDio, L.J.A.  (1992)  The relationship between the directions of myocardial bridges and the branches of the coronary arteries in the human heart.  Surg Radiol Anat 14(2):137-140.

Baptista, C.A.C., DiDio, L.J.A. & Teofilovski-Parapid, G.  (1992)  Variations of the blood supply of the human conus arteriosus.  Bull Assoc Anat 76(232):9-18.

Ginn, D.I., Baptista, C.A.C., Alam, K.Y., Deng, Y., Cicila, G.T., Margolius, H.S., Murphy, T.J., & Rapp, J.P.  (1993)  Estimation of genetic divergence between inbred Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rats.  J Hypertension 11:477-481.

Ginn, D.I., Baptista, C.A.C., Alam, K.Y., Deng, A.Y., Dene, H., Le, H., Kurtz, T.W., & and Rapp, J.P. (1994) Genetic analysis of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and blood pressure using Dahl salt-sensitive rats.  J Hypertension 12(4):357-365. 

Baptista, C.A.C. and Kirby, M.L.  (1997)  The cardiac ganglia:  Cellular and molecular aspects. Kaohs. J. Med. Scien. 13(1):42-54.

Bollag, R. J. ; Crawford, K. B.; Stadt, H.; Kumiski, D.; Zdanowicz, M.; Baptista, C.A.C.; Herlea, V. and Kirby, M. L. (1999) Use of a repetitive mouse B2 element to identify  transplanted mouse cells in mouse-chick chimeras. Experimental Cell Research 248: 75-78. 

Nigri, G., Baptista, C.A.C. and Di Dio, L. J. A. (2001) The Papillary Muscle and tendinous cords of the right ventricle of the human heart: morphological characteristics. Surg Radiol  Anat 23: 45-49.

Electronic Publications (Peer Reviewed):

Baptista, C.A.C. and Conran, P.B. (2005) Locations of Specific Blocks in the Metabolic Pathway of Bilirubin – Health Education Assets Library- National Digital Library – ID 38600

Baptista, C.A.C. (2005) Intimal Thickening - A Response to Vascular Injury – Health Education Assets Library- National Digital Library – ID 38647

 Baptista, C.A.C. and Quraishy, N. (2006) ABO Blood Typing - Health Education Assets Library- National Digital Library – ID 38661

Taylor, C.A. Gottwald, L and Baptista, C.A.C. (2007) . Schema-Based Learning.  Online Peer Reviewed Instructional Module. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Website.


Andrews, L.T., Begeman, M.S., Klingler, J.W., Baptista, C.A.C., Szwajkun, K.Y., Kubit, T., Behrendt, B.C., Zeiss, J. & Leighton, R.F.  (1991) Stimulation of Acute Myocardium Infarction. SIGMAGRAPH '91, on July 29-August 2, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S.A.

Baptista, C.A.C., Conran, P. B.  (1999) Teaching Pathology from an Academic Intranet at the Medical College of Ohio, G.R.I.P.E Meeting, June 22-26, 1999, Philadelphia, PA USA.

Baptista, C.A.C., and Batten, S.W.G. (2000) Using Flash-4 Animations to Teach Basic Concepts in Healthcare Education.  Slice of Life Workshop, June 27-28, 2000, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Baptista, C.A.C. (2000) Using animations to teach basic concepts in anatomy and pathology.  XIII Pan American Congress of Anatomy, September 2-6, 2000 in New Orleans, USA.

Baptista, C.A.C., and Batten, S.W.G (2001) Using Animations in Healthcare Professional Education. Syllabus Educational Technology Conference, April 5-8, 2001, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Batten, S.W.G, and Baptista, C.A.C. (2001) Implications for Online Planning: Student Preferences. Syllabus Educational Technology Conference, April 5-8, 2001, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Baptista, C.A.C., Batten, S.W.G. and Craigle,V. (2001) Intermediate Flash 5.0 Animation for the Web. Workshop at The Slice of Life, Computers in Healthcare Education Symposium, held on July 31-August 4, 2001, Munich, Germany.

Batten, S.W.G. and Baptista, C.A.C. (2001) Implications for Online Planning: Student Preferences. Slice of Life, Computers in Healthcare Education Symposium, July 31-August 4, 2001, Munich, Germany.

Batten, S.W. G and Baptista, C.A.C. (2002) Implications of Student Learning Channel Preference for Computer Based Teaching in Medicine.  XIV Pan American Congress of Anatomy, July 24-27, 2002, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Baptista, C.A.C. and Batten, S.W.G. (2002) Flash 5: A Medium for Teaching Anatomy, Embryology and Pathology. XIV Pan American Congress of Anatomy, July 24-27, 2002, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Baptista, C.A.C. and Moon, J. (2002) Using a Web-Based, Animated, Multimedia, Interactive (WAMI) Module to Augment Teaching of the Menstrual Cycle. National Conference on Professional Nursing Education and Development, November 20-23, 2002, Chicago, Illinois.

Baptista, C.A.C and Batten, S.W.G. (2003) Distance Learning: Identifying Conditions that Influence Web-Based Education Outcomes. Research Center for Educational Technology Fourth Annual Research Conference, January 23-24, 2003, Kent, Ohio.

Batten, S.W.G. and Baptista, C. A. C. (2003) Ready or Not: Nursing Student Computer Competence.  2003 Annual Research Conference, Midwest Nursing Research Society, April 4-7, 2003 Grand Rapids, MI.

Batten, S.W.G. and Baptista, C. A. C. (2003) Tango with Technology: Nursing Student and Faculty Computer Competence.  Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, September 23, 2003 Sylvania, Ohio.

Baptista, C.A.C., and Batten, S.W.G. (2004) Web-Based Learning: Healthcare Student Perceptions. Slice of Life, Computers in Healthcare Education Symposium, July 1-3, 2001, Leiden, Netherlands.

Batten, S.W.G. and Baptista, C.A.C. (2004) Old Dogs and New Tricks. Slice of Life, Computers in Healthcare Education Symposium July 1-3, 2004, Leiden, Netherlands. 

Baptista, C.A.C., and Batten, S.W.G. (2005) Breakout Sessions: Student Electronic Response Systems: Toy or Tool. Slice of Life Workshop for Multimedia Developers and Educators, June 16-18, 2005, Portland, Oregon. 

Nosek, T.M.; Medvedev, I.; Wang, W. and Baptista, C.A.C. (2006) Long Distance Collaborative Use of the Case Western Reserve School of Medicine eAssessment System by the Medical University of Ohio. Experimental Biology (American Association of Anatomists Section), April 1-5, 2006, San Francisco, California.

Baptista, C.A.C.; Batten, S.W.G.; Glauser, S.; Brookfield, E. G. and Maloney, C. G. (2006) Congenital Heart Defects Interactive. Slice of Life, 18th International Meeting for Medical Multimedia Developers and Educators, July 4-8, 2006, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Batten, S.W.G. and Baptista, C.A.C. (2006) Breakout Sessions: Computerized Testing: Taking the Plunge. Slice of Life, 18th International Meeting for Medical Multimedia Developers and Educators, July 4-8, 2006, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Baptista, C.A.C.; Glauser, S.; Moustofi, F.; Brookfield, E.G. and Maloney, C. G. (2006) Congenital Heart Defects: Interactive Case-based Learning Module. The 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists. July 11-15, 2006, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Moon, J.; Baptista, C.A.C. (2007) A Woman’s World:  Discovering the Dynamic Menstrual Cycle International Conference for The Society for Menstrual Cycle Research, June, 2007 Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Last Updated: 6/27/22