Adel Maklad, M.D., Ph.D.


Joint Professor
Department of Medical Education
Office: 103 Block Health Science Building
Tel: 419.383.4178


1986:  M.D., University of Ain Shams, Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt 
1994:  M.S., Neuroanatomy, University of Assiut, Assuit, Arab Republic of Egypt
2002:  Ph.D., Anatomy (Neurobiology), Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska
2006:  Postdoctoral Fellow. Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska

Teaching Experience and Responsibilities:

I have over 25 years of postdoctoral teaching experience in Gross Anatomy. I began my formal teaching job as an Instructor of Anatomy in a medical school in Egypt, in 1988 and continued until 1995. There, I taught Human Gross Anatomy, Embryology, and Neuroanatomy (average of 30 contact hours a week throughout the academic year). In 1996, I moved to the USA.  I undertook major teaching assignments in the Human Gross Anatomy at Creighton University. This involved classes in the medical school and school of Allied Health Profession.  My teaching obligations included both lectures and laboratory instruction. In 2006, I started my tenure track job as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Neurobiology & Anatomical Sciences at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. My work involves both lectures and assisting in all the laboratories. In addition, I am Course Director for Graduate Developmental Anatomy. I have always had excellent student evaluations. I was awarded the All-Star Professor Award for the last two years.

Research Program:

One of the interesting features of the vestibular hair cells in the otolith endorgans is the reversal of their morphological polarity at a border called striola. This polarity reversal has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution over 460 million years. The functional significance of this polarity reversal is not yet clear. In my recently published study, I found that the striola line demarcate not only the hair cell polarity reversal, but also the afferent domains projecting either to brainstem or cerebellum in mice. I am currently investigating whether afferent segregations at the striola is conserved across other classes of vertebrate of different locomotive behavior, using lamprey, teleosts, amphibians, and birds. I am also investigating role played by the hair cells, and their polarized arrangement, in establishing afferent segregation to the brainstem and cerebellum, using several mutant mouse lines such as Atoh1, Sox2, and frizzled3. In an additional project, I am currently investigating the role played by different calcium binding proteins, such as calretinin, parvalbumin, and calbindin in inner ear morphogenesis.  

In addition, I have a collaborative NIH (R01) funded research with the Department of Otolaryngology, determining “the neural basis of sound activation in the vestibular system, as a basis of VEMP (vestibular evoked myogenic potential) clinical testing for the vestibular system disease. 

I have also a collaborative r research with Dr. Nicholas Johnson from Hammond Bay Biological Station , USGS, Great Lake Science Center, Millersburg, MI. We are investigating the evolution of the inner ear, using the lamprey as an Evo/Devo  model system.


Abdel-MalekAK, SalehMN, Aly YA, Ahmed MG, Maklad (Tohamy) A (1995) Brain changes with age on computed tomography. Age & Nutrition 6:93-98.

Maklad A, Fritzsch B (1999) Incomplete segregation of endorgan-specific segregation of the vestibular ganglion cells in mice and rat. J Vestib Res 9:387-399.

Maklad A, Quinn T, Fritzsch (2001) Intracranial distribution of the sympathetic system in mice: DiI tracing and immunocytochemical labeling. The Anat Rec. 263:99-111.

Fritzsch B, Maklad A, Bruce L, Crapon de Caprona, M.-D. (2001) Development of the ear and of the connections between the ear and the brain: the role of microgravity. Adv Space Res 28:595-600.

Maklad A, Fritzsch B (2002) The developmental segregation of posterior crista and saccular vestibular fibers in mice: a carbocyanine tracer study using confocal microscopy. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 135:1-17.

Fritzsch B, Beisel KW, Jones K, Farinas I, Maklad A, Reichardt L (2002) Development and evolution of inner ear sensory systems and their innervation. J Neurobiol 53: 143-56.

Maklad A, Fritzsch B (2003) Partial segregation of posterior crista and saccular fibers to the nodulus and uvula of the cerebellum in mice. Brain Res Dev Brain Re. 140:223-36.

Xiang M, Maklad A, Pirvola U, Fritzsch B (2003) Brn3c null mutant mice show long-term, incomplete retention of some afferent inner ear innervation. BMC Neurosci. 4:2

Maklad A, Fritzsch B (2003) Development of vestibular afferent projections into hindbrain and their central targets. Brain Res Bull 60:497-510.

Maklad A, Fritzsch B, Hansen L (2004) Innervation of the maxillary vibrissae in mice as revealed by anterograde and retrograde tract tracing. Cell Tissue Res 15: 167-180.

Maklad A, AtteyaGA, Abdel Hakim AH, Zaghloul DA (2004). Cutaneous nerves dependency on their target for proper innervation pattern. Assiut Medical Journal 22:199-208.

Beisel KW, Wang-Lundberg Y, Maklad A, Fritzsch B (2005). Development and evolution of the vestibular sensory apparatus of the mammalian ear. J Vestib Res 15: 225-41.

Morris JK, Maklad A, Hansen L, Feng Feng, Sorenson C, Lee K, Macklin WB, Fritzsch B (2006) A disorganized innervation of the inner ear persists in the absence of ErbB2. Brain Res 109:186-199.

Maklad A, Nicolai J, Bichsel KJ, Evenson JE, Lee T, Threadgill DW, Hansen LA (2008).  EGFR  is required for proper innervation to the skin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 129:690-698.

Maklad A,  Kamel S, Wong E, Fritzsch B (2010).  Development and organization of polarity specific segregation of primary vestibular afferent fibers in mice. Cell and Tissue Res 340:303-321.

Maklad A, Conway M,  Hodges C,Hansen L (2010).    Development of innervation to maxillary whiskers in mice. The Anatomical Record 293 1553-67.

Maklad A, Feng F, Fritzsch B (2010). Vestibular primary afferent pathways in mammals. Springer web-based Encyclopedia.

Mahmoud A, Reed C, Maklad A (2013) Central Projections of Lagenar Primary Neurons in the Chick. J Comp Neurol 521:3524-3540.

Zhu H, Tang X, Wei W, Maklad A, Mustain W, Rabbit R, Highstein S, Allison J, Zhou W (2013) Input-output functions of vestibular afferent responses to air-conducted clicks in rats. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol (Epub ahead of print).

Maklad A, Reed CT, Johnson NS, Fritzsch B (2013) Anatomy of the lamprey ear: morphological evidence for occurrence of horizontal canals in the labyrinth of Petromyzon marinus. J Anat (Epub, ahead of print).


Tohamy (Maklad) A, Neary, TJ, and Fritzsch,  B. (1997)  Pathway selection choices in the vestibular afferents and efferents as revealed by retrograde tracing. Soc. Neurosci.Abs. 23: 1956.

Fritzsch B, Bruce LL, Maklad A, and Crapon de Caprona MD (2000) Development of the ear and of the connections between the ear and the brain: The role of microgravity. COSPAR Meeting, Warsaw.

Fritzsch B, Maklad A, and Beisel KW. (2001) Establishing connections: Molecular biology of afferent and efferent fiber growth. Molecular Biology of Ear Development, Washington, DC.

Fritzsch B,  Muirhead K.A.,  Gray B,  Maklad A. (2002) Diffusion and imaging properties of three new lipophilic tracers, PKH2, PKH26 and PTIR271, and their use for triple labeling of neuronal profiles. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Mahmoud A,  Maklad A. ( 2011) Conservation of vestibular afferent segregation within the otolith endorgan at the striola across vertebrate classes. FASEB Abst.

Trotter C,  Hansen C,  Maklad A. ( 2011) Hair follicles  are required for patterning sensory innervation to the skin in a time dependent fashion: A study on nude mice. FASEB Abst.

Maklad A.,  Mahmoud A. ( 2011)  Endorgan-specific organization of vestibular ganglion neurons in chick. FASEB Abst

Mahmoud A, Trotter C, Maklad A. ( 2011) Projection of the macula lagena to the brainstem and cerebellum in the chicken embryo. (Graduate School Research Day).

Zhu H.,. Tang X,  Maklad A,  Mustain M.,  Rabbitt R,  Highstein S,  Zhou W. (2012) Relation between vestibular afferents sound sensitivity and peripheral innervation patterns in rat vestibular end organs. ARO Abst.

Maklad A, Reed CT, Johnson NS, Fritzsch B (2013) Anatomy of the lamprey ear: morphological evidence for occurrence of horizontal canals in the labyrinth of Petromyzon marinus. Journal of Anatomy (ARO Abst.)

Mahmoud A, Reed C, Maklad A (2013) Central Projections of Lagenar Primary Neurons in the Chick (FASEB Abs.).

Last Updated: 6/27/22