The Ward M. Canaday Center

for Special Collections

The University of Toledo

Finding Aid

Gustavus Ohlinger Papers, 1821-1987

MSS-013

Size: 5.25 linear feet

Provenance: received from JohnF. Ohlinger and Alice (Ohlinger) in 1981. Additions were made in 1982, 1983, 1990, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1998 and 2000.

Access: open

Collection Summary: Collection includes journals, correspondence, literary productions, scrapbooks, printed materials, and photographs related to Ohlinger's civic, professional, and personal life. Some correspondence documents his high school years in Chefoo, China. A journal kept by Ohlinger from 1902 to 1905 chronicles his law career in Shanghai and his participation in post-Russo-Japanese War negotiations. "Our Summer Odyssey, August 1 to September 1, 1954," a journal/photo album of a European vacation, further documents some of Ohlinger's travels. Also included in this collection are papers generated and collected by various family members. The most extensive group is the papers of Ohlinger's sister, Constance Ohlinger.

Subjects: Civic Interests, Politics and Government, Social Welfare, and Travel

Related Collections: Ward M. Canaday Papers, MSS-072, Frank H. Canaday Papers, MSS-031

Processing Note: Each addition has been interfiled in the original collection.

Copyright: The literary rights to this collection are assumed to rest with the person(s) responsible for the production of the particular items within the collection, or with their heirs or assigns.  Researchers bear full legal responsibility for the acquisition to publish from any part of said collection per Title 17, United States Code.  The Ward M. Canaday Center for Special Collections may reserve the right to intervene as intermediary at its own discretion.

Completed by: Paul Gifford, 1982. Finding Aid Revised by April S. Dougal, 1990; Colleen  Boff, 1993; Barbara A. Shirk, 1994 and 1996;  Laura Micham, 1998; Maria Halovanic, 2000; last updated: June 2014
 

Biographical Sketch

Gustavus Ohlinger was born 15 July 1877 in Foochow, China, where his parents served as missionaries.  He attended high school in Chefoo, China until 1898, when he came to the United States to further his education.  After graduation from Law School at the University of Michigan, Ohlinger practiced law in Shanghai, China from 1902 to 1905 with T.R. Jernigan.  It was also at this time that he traveled around the world.  At the end of the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, Ohlinger and Jernigans’ firm represented the Russian government in post-war negotiations.

In 1906, Ohlinger established an independent law practice in Toledo, Ohio.  In 1909 he entered into the partnership of Rheinfrank and Ohlinger, and later resumed his independent practice until 1914.  That year, Ohlinger joined the firm of Smith, Beckwith and Froelich which became Smith, Beckwith, and Ohlinger.  In 1962, he resumed an independent practice in Toledo which he maintained until his death in 1972.  Ohlinger specialized in federal law.

From 1918 to 1919, Ohlinger served as a captain in the United States Army with the Intelligence Division of the Army General Staff in Washington, D.C. during and after World War I.  During the Second World War, he organized the Toledo Squadron of the Civil Air Patrol and served as a member of that unit until 1943.

During and after World War II, Ohlinger founded the Toledo United Nations Association (TUNA) as president of the organization.  His other civic activities included:  service on the board of governors of the American Association for the United Nations (1951-1955), membership on the Toledo Board of Education (1926-1934), the Ohio Bar Association, the National Commission of Organization for Peace, Phi Beta Kappa, and the Chamber of Commerce.

While living in Toledo, Gustavus Ohlinger practiced law and specialized in federal law; his clients included the Wabash and Ann Arbor Railroad Company.  He also taught Civil Practice at the University of Toledo’s College of Law in the academic year 1960-1961, and was awarded a LL.D. that same year.  Other Toledo committees he maintained membership with included the American Legion, the Masonic Order, the Chamber of Commerce, and the Rotary Club.


Biographical Outline

1877

Born on 15 July in Foochow, China. Son of Franklin and Bertha (Schweinfurth) Ohlinger

1899 Attended University of Michigan
1902 Graduated from the University of Michigan with an A.B. and LL.B.
1902-1905 Practiced law in Shanghai, China, in partnership with T. R. Jernigan. In 1904 represented the Russian government at the war settlement and reparations negotiations. Also traveled around the world at this time.
1906 Returned to United States and established independent law practice in Toledo, OH
1914 Joined the firm of Smith, Beckwith, and Froelich. Married Helen Emma on July 11. Three children from union: John Franklin, Lucy Jane, and Mary Alice.
1916 Author of books: Their True Faith and Allegiance and The German Conspiracy in American Education (1919)
1918 Testified before the judiciary committee of the U.S. Senate in arguments for the repeal of the incorporation of the National German-American Alliance.
1918-1919 Served as a captain in the U.S. Army during and after WW I, served with the Intelligence Division of the Army General Staff in Washington, D.C.
1926 Appointed to the Toledo Board of Education, serving as vice president and president
1931-1937 Lectured at the University of Michigan Law School.
1937-1944 Specialized in federal law, clients included the Wabash and Ann Arbor Railroad Co.; represented Bolles v. the Toledo Trust Co. up to the Supreme Court.
1948-1955 Founder of the Toledo United Nations Association, serving as president.
1951-1955 Served as a member of the board of governors of the American Association for the United Nations.
1960-1961 Visiting professor of civil practice at the University of Toledo College of Law.
1972 Died on June 12 in Toledo, Ohio.

Note:  For additional biographical information, see the National Cyclopedia of American Biography, v. 58.

 

Scope and Content Note

This collection is arranged in nine series:  Journals, Correspondence, Literary Productions, Tape Recordings, Scrapbooks and Scrapbook Materials, Printed Materials, Photographs, Ephemera, and Family Papers.  The Journals series consists of a journal kept by Gustavus Ohlinger documenting his world travels from October 1902 to October 1905.  The wedding journal of Gustavus and Helen may also be found in this series along with an Ohlinger family journal dating from 1913-1934.

The Correspondence series includes four subseries.  Outgoing correspondence encompasses the period from 1891 through 1967 inclusively; one highlight of this subseries is the “Chefoo letters,” written by Gustavus Ohlinger and addressed to his parents.  Both the originals and photocopies of the originals may be found in the collection.  Incoming correspondence comprises the bulk of this series.  It is arranged alphabetically, then chronologically within each folder.  One digression from this arrangement is the series of correspondence between Theodore Roosevelt and Ohlinger.  The Roosevelt correspondence includes communications from Roosevelt’s office, from Roosevelt himself, from Ohlinger to Roosevelt, and from T. Roosevelt, Jr. to Ohlinger.  The third subseries are comprised of letters of introduction written for Ohlinger in 1903.  The final subseries contain the personal correspondence of the Ohlinger family.  These are divided by family relations with correspondence between Gustavus and his parents in one folder,; Gustavus, his wife Helen, and his sister Constance in another folder; and the correspondence between Gustavus and his three children (John, Lucy and Alice) in yet another folder.  There is also a folder of miscellaneous family correspondence in this subseries.

Literary productions in the Ohlinger collection include draft and manuscript copies of articles; published articles written by G.O. as well as publications by others; research notes (1891-1966); speeches and readings (1924-1965); course outlines created by Ohlinger when he taught at the University of Toledo (1960), along with other writing projects.

The next series is comprised of Tape recording.  Various memories and recollections of Mr. Ohlinger are recorded.  These include his childhood and early schooling in China, and his time spent between China, Africa and the United States.  One of the recordings also documents Mr. Ohlinger’s interview with young Winston Spencer Churchill in 1901.

The Ohlinger papers also include Scrapbooks and Scrapbook Materials.  “Our Summer Odyssey, August 1 to September 1, 1954,” is a combined journal and photo album of his trip to Europe.  Also included in this series is a scrapbook of newspaper clippings dating from 1912-1926.

Printed Materials includes newspaper clippings that cover a wide range of topics and interests. This series also includes certificates and licenses, materials from South Africa and China, items from the Toledo United Nations Association, the Toledo War Chest, and a file of miscellaneous materials.

Series List

S1

Journals

 

1902-1934

 

Arranged by type and chronologically

 

Personal journal of G.O (dismantled for conservation purposes): 1902-1905, Ohlinger Wedding Journal: 1914, and Ohlinger Family Journal: 1913-1934.

 

 

S2

Correspondence

 

1891-1967

 

Arranged alphabetically then chronologically

 

Divided into four subseries: Outgoing, Incoming, Letters of Introduction, and Ohlinger Family Correspondence. The first two are arranged alphabetically according to correspondent then chronologically within each folder while the last two are chronological. Of particular note is a group of letters from Theodore Roosevelt dating 1915-1918, other significant correspondents include Theodore Roosevelt Jr., Ellery Sedgewick, Charles M. Sheldon, Waren G. Harding, and John F. Kennedy.

 

 

S3

Literary Productions

 

1891-1966,

 

Arranged chronologically

 

Divided into six subseries: Articles, Publications by G.O., Publications by Others, Research Notes, Speeches and Readings, and Various Writings. The first consists of manuscripts and outlines of articles and the second contains the published version of these articles. The last three subseries document the process and evolution of various other writing projects undertaken by G.O.

 

 

S4

Tape Recordings

 

1884-1965

 

Arranged chronologically

 

Contains recordings made by G.O. describing his childhood and schooling in China, And visits made to Michigan (Ann Arbor, 1901), Africa (1902), the Philippine Islands and around China (1904-1905), and Toledo (1906).

 

 

S5

Scrapbooks and Scrapbook Materials

 

1954

 

Arranged chronologically

 

Titled "Our Summer Odyssey, August 1 to September 1, 1954," this combination Journal and photo album is two volumes in length.

 

 

S6

Printed Materials

 

1909-1949

 

Arranged chronologically

 

Contains newspaper clippings as well as certificates, licenses, and materials related to South Africa, China, the Toledo United Nations Association, the Toledo War Chest, and other materials collected by G.O.

 

 

S7

Photographs

 

1901-1968

 

Arranged chronologically

 

Includes Ohlinger family pictures (1901-1968), six volumes pictures taken on G.O.'s (and family's) tour of China and South Africa1902-1905,) and various photos taken or collected by G.O. (1935-1936).

S8

Ephemera

 

1902-1956

 

Arranged chronologically

 

Consists of postcards and greeting cards sent to and collected by G.O. and family.

 

 

S9

Family Papers

 

1821, 1901-1988

 

Arranged according to family member (and document type)

 

Contains an extensive group of papers related to Constance Ohlinger (sister of G.O.), along with papers of John F. Ohlinger (son of G.O.), Gertrude Rinehart, and Lucy Ohlinger as well as affidavits of American citizenship (1926-1966).

Arrangement

Box

Folder

Folder Title

 

 

 

 

 

S1. Journals

1

1

      1902

 

2

       1903

 

3

       1903

 

4

       1903-1905

 

5

       Ohlinger Wedding Journal, 1914

 

5a

       Lucie and Johnnie Wedding Journal, 1941

 

6

       Ohlinger Family Journal, 1913-1934

 

 

 

 

 

S2. Correspondence

 

 

  Outgoing

 

7

       "Chefoo Letters" (originals), 1891-1892

 

8

       "Chefoo Letters" (photocopies), 1891-1892

 

9

       1905-1906

 

10

       1906-1950

 

11

       1951-1967

 

 

  Incoming

 

12

       A, 1914-1966

 

13

       Adee, Alvey A., 1902

 

14

       Allen, H.N., 1914-1966

 

15

       Angell, James R., 1902

 

16

       Anti-Saloon League, 1918

 

17

       B, 1915-1963

 

18

       Bates, Henry M., 1929-1950

 

19

       C, 1913-1962

 

20

       Campbell, Henry C., 1916-1917

 

21a

       Colonial Secretary, Straits Settlement, 1903

 

21b

       Cooper, John Sherman, 1960 and 1961

 

22

       D, 1915-1952

 

23a

       E-F, 1913-1964, n.d.

 

23b

       Flues, A. Gilmore, 1942

 

24

       G, 1913-1961, n.d.

 

25

       H-J, 1916-1967, n.d.

 

26

       Hagedorn, Hermann, 1917-1951

 

27

       Harding, Warren G., 1918

 

28a

       Havinghurst, Freeman C., 1925-1930

 

28b

       Hinton, William H., 1954

 

29

       Hutchins, H.B., 1902-1927

 

30

       K-L, 1915-1966

 

31

       Kelly, Fred C., 1924-1950

 

31a

       Letters from classmates at University of Michigan

 

32

       Kennedy, John F., 1961

 

33

       M, 1914-1967

 

 

 

2

1

       Macmillan Company, 1916-1925 (includes manuscript copy of Their True Faith and Allegiance, contract)

 

2

       Maher, Amy, 1935 and 1941

 

3

       Marshall, Edwin J., 1935-1937

 

4

       N-O, 1914-1953

 

5

       P-Q, 1915-1953

 

6

       Patterson, Grove, 1925-1954

 

7

       Pearson, George W., 1950

 

8

       R, 1902-1962

 

9

       Ras, H.N., 1901-1902 (in German)

 

10

       Reams, Frazier, 1930-1955

 

 

       Roosevelt, Theodore (Office of)

 

11

       n.d.

 

12

       1916

 

13

       1915

 

14

       1916

 

15

       1917

 

16

       1917

 

17

       1917

 

18

       1918

 

19

       1918

 

20

       1918

 

21

       1918

 

22

       1918

 

 

       Roosevelt, Theodore (from G.O.)

 

23

       1916-1918 (photostats)

 

24

       1917

 

25

       1917

 

26

       n.d. (telegram copy)

 

27

       Roosevelt, Theodore Jr., 1919

 

28

       Rotary Club of Toledo, 1923-1936

 

29

       Rush, Richard H., 1937-1950

 

30

       S, 1913-1966

 

31

       Sedgewick, Ellery, 1914-1920

 

32

       Sheldon, Charles M., 1923-1936

 

33

       Spitzer, John, 1940-1942

 

34

       T-V, 1914-1966

 

35

       Toledo War Industries Commission, 1918 (includes constitution)

 

36

       W, 1913-1953

 

 

       W.H. Anderson Company

 

37

       1959-1961

 

38

        January, 1965-March, 1966

 

39

       April, 1966-January, 1968

 

40

       Y-Z, 1917-1951

 

41

       Misc. incoming correspondence (initials or first names only)

 

 

  Letters of Introduction

 

42

        Written for G.O., 1903

 

 

 Ohlinger Family Correspondence

 

43

        1891-1933 (G.O. and parents)

 

44

        1908-1949 (G.O., Helen, and Constance)

 

45

        1922-1982, n.d. (G.O., John, Lucy, and Alice)

 

46

        Misc. family correspondence, 1896-1936

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S3. Literary Productions

 

 

  Articles

 

47

      Manuscripts and outlines, 1934-1937, n.d.

 

 

   Publications by G.O.   

 

48

     The Washing Sword Pavilion, 1891 (first publication)

 

49

      "Winston Spencer Churchill:  A Midnight Interview"
           Michigan Quarterly Review, Spring 1966
           Michigan Quarterly Review, Summer 1966

 

50

     “Extra-Territorial Jurisdiction in China,” Michigan Law Review, 1906

 

51

      “Some Leading Principles of Chinese Law,” Michigan Law Review, 1910

  3

1

      “The Practical Basis for Republican Institutions for China”
The Popular Science Monthly, 1912

 

2

      “Kiao-Chau,” The World’s Work, 1914

 

3

      “Japan’s Opportunity in China,” America to Japan, 1915

 

4

     “Tsingtau:  The Sequel to Port Arthur,” The Atlantic Monthly, 1915

 

5

      “German Propaganda in the United States,” The Atlantic Monthly, 1916

 

6

      “The National Army,” The Atlantic Monthly, 1918

 

7

      Testimony of Gustavus Ohlinger, National German-American Alliance, 1918

 

8

      “The Power of the Written Assertion,” Michigan Law Review, 1926

 

9

      “Some Comments on the Reserved Power to Alter, Amend and Repeal
           Corporate Charters,” Michigan Law Review, 1931

 

10

      “Some Problems Under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure,”
           The Ohio Law Reporter, 1940

 

11

      Problems of Jurisdiction and Venue, 1941

 

12

      “Jurisdiction, Venue and Process as to Counterclaims and Third-Party
           Claims; Rules 13 and 14 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure”
           The Federal Bar Journal, 1945

 

13

       “Amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure”
           Ohio State Law Journal

 

14

       The German Conspiracy in American Education

 

 

  Publications by Others

 

15

       The Mere Man and His Problems, 1924

 

16

       Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, 1919 and Robert Hardy’s Seven Days, 1900

 

 

  Research Notes

 

17

       1932-1934

 

18

       1935-1936

 

19

       1956-1958, n.d.

 

 

       School Integration Case (Little Rock), 1957-1958

 

20

1 of 2

 

21

2 of 2

 

22

       Notes on Consular Jurisdiction in China

 

 

  Speeches and Readings

 

23

       [1924]-1935

 

24

       1936-1942

  4

1

       [1942]-1945

 

2

       1944-1946

 

3

       1947-c.1965, n.d.

 

 

  Various Writings

 

4

       University of Toledo course outlines, 1960

 

5

       Anglo-Chinese College Material, 1920-1957

 

6

       The Christian Society of Korea--(A Short History:  1890-1960)

 

7

       "American First and Other Fallacies

 

8

       "Germans in China"

 

9

       "A Layman Replies to a Banker"

 

10

       Miscellaneous

 

 

 

 

 

S4. Tape Recordings

 

11

     Recollections of early schooling in China, 1884;  Churchill’s visit to
           Ann Arbor and interview, 1901; Return to China, 1902

 

12

       Recollections of Africa, 1902 aftermath of war; on to Manilla, Philippine
           Islands; Shanghai, China, 1904-1905;  Toledo, 1906

 

13

       Childhood in China;  Ann Arbor-Africa, 1965

 

14

        Shanghai and return to United States, 1965

 

 

 

 

 

S5. Scrapbooks and Scrapbook Materials

 

 

 “Our Summer Odyssey, August 1 to September 1, 1954,”  (Journal/photo album)

 

15

         1 of 2

 

16

         2 of 2

 

17^

      Scrapbook of newspaper clippings (See appendix for list), 1912-1926

 

 

 

 

 

S6. Printed Materials

 

18

     Newspaper clippings

 

19

      Certificates and Licenses, 1909-1948

 

20

      South Africa and China, 1903-1905

 

21

      TUNA and Related, 1945-1949

 

22

      Toledo War Chest, 1918, n.d.

 

23

      Miscellaneous

 

24

      Ohlinger Family Newsletters, 3 issues

 

25

      Commerce Club News

 

 

 

 

 

S7. Photographs

 

 

      Taken on World Tour (So. Africa and China), 1902-1905

   5

1

        1 of 6

 

2

        2 of 6

 

3

        3 of 6

 

4

        4 of 6

 

5

        5 of 6

 

6

        6 of 6

 

7

      Ohlinger and Family, 1883-1968

 

8

      Miscellaneous, 1935-1936

 

 

 

 

 

S8. Ephemera

 

9

      Post cards, greeting cards, and memorabilia, 1902-1956

 

 

 

 

 

S9. Family Papers

 

10

      Affidavits of American Citizenship, 1926-1966

 

11

      Ohlinger Family History

 

12

      Ohlinger, Constance, 1911-1929

 

13

      Ohlinger, John F., 1915-1988

 

14

      Ohlinger, John F., correspondence, clippings, resume, short stories

 

15

      Rinehart, Gertrude, 1901

 

16

      Ohlinger, Lucy, 1932

 

17

      Receipts, etc., 1913-1957

 

18

      John Schweinfurth, sermons in German, 1821

 

19

      Franklin Ohlinger, two books translated by him into Chinese, 1907

 

20

      Alice Ohlinger Weaver, travel log of her trip to New York, March, 1937

 

21

      G.O., biographical file from Toledo Public Library local history room,
           1919-1972

 

22

      G.O., UT Notables Exhibit Labels

 

23

      Ohlinger, Constance, Legal Documents, 1920's, 1966, 1973, 1987

 

24

      Ohlinger, Constance, Correspondence and Recollections of a Trip to
           Europe, ca. 1925

 

25

      Ohlinger, Constance, Correspondence to family, 1925-1957

 

26

      Ohlinger, Constance, Correspondence, business and personal (incoming
           and outgoing), 1929-1974

 

27

      Ohlinger, Constance, Correspondence with institutions about donations
           of family possessions, 1954-1973

 

28

      Ohlinger, Constance, Printed Material, Newspaper clippings, 1934, 1935,
           1938, 1948, 1984, 1987, n.d.

 

29

      Ohlinger, Constance, Pilot logs and membership cards, 1944-1957

 

30

      Ohlinger, Constance, Photographs, Aviation Club, ca. 1946

 

31

      Ohlinger, Constance, Photographs, Various, 1907-1980's

 

32

      Ohlinger, Constance, Ephemera, 1935-1973, n.d.

^ Located on oversize shelf

 

Last Updated: 6/19/14