Principles of Public Administration

Political Science 3420, Fall 2010, Prof. Davis


Public Administration looks at how government implements decisions, usually in the executive branch of the national, state and local government. This home page follows the textbook, Public Administration 3rd. edition, by William C. Johnson. Warm up on FEMA (the Federal Emergency Management Agency) in the US Department of Homeland Security. The Department of Defense is in the news every day.


1 Introduction: US Department of Health and Human Services, US Environmental Protection Agency. Housing agencies at the nationalstate and local levels, the FBI, the Toledo Police Department, Fire Department, and Mars exploration by NASA. Professionalization: the American Society for Public Administration.

History: The Pendleton Act, Taylorism, the New Deal, Lyndon B. Johnson and the Great Society, Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. Two Toledo mayors, Samuel "Golden Rule" Jones (in French) and Brand Whitlock, were national leaders of the Progressive Movement. Academic discipline: Trained as a political scientist at Johns Hopkins University, Woodrow Wilson was among the first to analyze public administration. Policy making looks at different issue areas. Notes on history.


2 The Mosaic of Governments: The Executive Office of the President. Bureaucratic structure is rational, specialized, efficient and hierarchical. Organization charts like this one for the Department of Labor are a tool for understanding structure. Department of Justice  State level: Ohio General purpose local governments: the City of  Toledo and Lucas County. Special purpose local governments: the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California is the largest in the nation. 


3. The Federal Network can be vertical (national, state, local) or horizontal (between Toledo and its suburbs, or between Ohio and Michigan). Federalism, which is the term for the relationship between the national and state governments, is an elusive concept for students. Do not be misled because the national government is routinely called the "Federal" government. The Constitution defines the relation in Articles I, IV, VI and X and the 14th Amendment. Laws admitting each new state declare it is on an equal footing with the other states. Delegated programs for welfare, the environment and occupational safety define it for each area. The Council of State Governments concentrates on federalism. Grants from the national to state governments are a key connection, for instance funds for housing and highways. Link to Facts on Federalism. Internationally almost half the world lives in federal governments. Switzerland is exemplary.

State and local governments have no direct connection to the national government, but nevertheless conduct many joint projects, typically paid for by grants in aid. Link to Ohio  Michigan and local government in Toledo and northwest Ohio. For as long as 150 years certain state and municipal governments have been exemplary: New York State, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Oregon and to New York City, Minneapolis and Madison. Indianapolis Indy Gov was formerly called Unigov. With its vast size, remoteness, and high degree of national government ownership, Alaska has a unique federal relationship. The picket fence with areas including agriculture, airports, elementary and secondary education, higher education, highways, hospitals, libraries, mental health, housing, urban renewal, vocational education and welfare. 


4. The Private Sector in Public Administration: Maumee Valley Habitat for Humanity. Privatization ideas from the NCPA, the Cato Institute and AFSCME. W. Edwards Deming. CSC is one of the biggest contractors for the Pentagon. The Halliburton company and its critics. The Lima Tank Plant is owned by the Army but managed by a private company. Prison privatization from Geo Cities, critics and the industry directory. The Regional Growth Partnership of Northwest Ohio. Originally the new Air Traffic Organization was supposed to be like a private corporation, but it ended up a hybrid. President Bush's Faith Based Initiatives. Many nonprofits are examples of the private provision of government services. 


5. The Dynamics of  Bureaucracy: Organizational Theory and Behavior. First Gov links to all national agencies. NASA. Osborne and Gaebler have ten principles. Vice President Gore wanted to reinvent government, but now his National Performance Review is in the cyber cemetery.


6 Policy: Issues: Biotechnology for stem cell research. Air bags in automobiles. Post secondary enrollment options Minnesota. The Centers for Disease Control, and the Archer Daniels Midland Company. Notes on policy and on interest group and elite theory. Political scientists often explain the origins of interest groups by looking at theories about mass movements. Both begin with a disturbance.


7 Leadership: C. Everett Koop MD, and the present Surgeon General. Zubin Mehta exemplifies leadership in conducting the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra.

Political scientists like to hold up presidents like George Washington. Abraham Lincoln and Franklin Roosevelt. Theodore Roosevelt coined the term "bully pulpit." Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins was the first woman to hold Cabinet rank. Robert Moses built housing, parks, and bridges in New York from 1923 to 1972. The Federal Executive Institute. Theories of evolutionary psychology, formerly called sociobiology. Notes on leadership.

Management: The International City Management Association (ICMA) and the American Management Association.


8 Decision Making: Game Theory, an Environmental Impact Statement, the Department of Agriculture  Strategic planning in Oregon  Risk assessment from a private company  Cost benefit analysis introduced and applied to safety. Ground Zero in New York City. Notes on decision making and a cost benefit example.


9 Public Money in the national government is managed by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Each department has its own budget office. In Ohio it is managed by the Office of Budget and Management  The City of Toledo has its Department of Finance, and Lucas County has its Office of Management and Budget. NASBO covers state and local finance. Notes on the budget cycle 

Each year in January the president presents his budget to Congress to enact into a series of ten laws, more or less one law for each department. After a Representative and a Senator introduce the budget bills, the bills go to the two Appropriations Committees for the House and Senate which in turn assign them to the proper subcommittee. The Budget Committees for the House and  Senate oversee the process. The State of Ohio follows a similar process.


10 Human Resources, also known as personnel, is the function of recruiting, selecting, promoting, compensating and terminating government employees. The field also includes equal employment opportunity and training. In the national government the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is the central agency responsible overall; each department hires most employees directly. The Merit Systems Protection Board serves as a court of appeals.

In Ohio the central agency is the Division of Human Resources in the Department of Administration. In the City of Toledo it is the Department of Human Resources. In Michigan the Office of Management and Budget is the central personnel agency. The Minnesota Department of  Employee Relations US civil service salaries  Facts on  EEO and ADA. The Pendleton Act. 

Unions: the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME). Teachers unions are very powerful: the American Federation of Teachers headquarters and Toledo, and the National Education Association: headquarters and Ohio

Practical tips on how to find a job in government and a sample resume . Links via the public personnel course.


11 Government and Business: Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the new Air Traffic Organization. The Food and Drug Administration. The Federal Trade Commission manages the Do Not Call Registry. The Federal  Register is the daily newspaper of the US government. Smart growth in Portland. Notes on regulation


12 Citizens: Government to Public Role: Highways , schools , teachers , the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, the FDIC , Love Canal, real estate on the South Carolina coast. Rights: the Civil Rights Division of the US Department of Justice. The ACLU and a free speech site. Child welfare in Florida from the agency and a group in favor of privatization.


13 Implementation: Disabilities. The US Economic Development Administration and the City of Oakland  The City of  Portland and its recycling program. The Social Security Administration. Highway safety from the US Department of  Transportation, the Federal Highway Administration in DOT, and the insurance industry.

Evaluation: Statistics on everything. GAO conducts program evaluations. Evaluation offices in EPA and the Social Security Administration. The Mississippi Joint Legislative Evaluation Committee.


14 Accountability and Ethics: The GAO is Congress's watchdog. The Inspector General in the Department of the Interior.  Whistle blowers from Jim D'Elia and a Center  Although all Congressional committees oversee Executive Branch agencies, the House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight and the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs devote all their time to accountability. ASPA Code of Ethics. The Watergate scandal from the Washington Post and VCE . Iraq detainee abuse and torture from IPS and Human Rights Watch. The US Freedom of Information Act.


Professional organizations for the discipline of public administration include the American Society for Public Administration, and the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA). The International City County Managers Association, the National Association of Counties , the Government Finance Officers Association, the housing officials organization, the National Sheriffs Association, the International Association of Chiefs of Police and its Illinois Chapter, and the National Association of Social Workers and its Ohio Chapter.


Writing: The Writing Center. Citation style. Dramaturgy essay for Writing Center visit. Until recently Toby Fulwiler taught at the University of Vermont. Models papers from previous years on Water, Gun Control, Project Self Sufficiency and Fallen Timbers near Maumee. Tips for maximizing your score on an examination.


Link to the Political Science Department, the MPA program, and the Study Abroad office.
Carlson Library and UTmost  The College of Arts and Sciences and the University  
Google and First Gov
Professor Davis  E mail David.Davis@UToledo.edu 


Last modified August 27, 2010.  


Last Updated: 6/17/14