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Argon gas is flowed into the chamber, where it gets excited. This produces argon ions and electrons. The ions get accelerated to the surface of the target (the material that needs to be deposited) and are aided by a magnet, which traps the electron near the target and keeping the plasma going. The bombarding ions transfer momentum to the Target atoms. This causes the Target atoms to go into a gas phase and travel to the substrate forming a thin film or coating. RF (radio frequency) sputtering is good for insulting material and DC (Diode) sputtering is good for metals. Sputtering results in many collisions, smaller grain size, and better adhesion.
CMS24S: two dedicated RF/DC magnetron sputters for metal depositions and metal oxide depositions. Use mainly for fabrication of CIGS solar cells. CMS24-1 is used for deposition of molybdenum back contact layer and CMS24-2 is used for deposition of Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCO) and Buffer layers. Each system contains 2 three inch RF sputtering gun and a single three inch DC sputtering gun.
Utility Sputter:this Sputtering system deploys a single three inch RF sputtering gun. The system is employed primarily for exploratory studies of newer materials or device fabrications.