The Jack Ford Urban Affairs Center

UAC Reports: 1981-1984

Don J. Sabol

July 1981


In this report I have limited analysis to straight-forward frequency distributions. Much more analysis is possible. Specific characteristics of spouse abuse and their relation to other social factors could be investigated. Variables could be cross tabulated by age, number of children, history of violence, or any other area recorded. Reactions to this study are welcome. Summary:

This study provides a view of spouse abuse experienced by 288 couples in the Toledo are and reflects the increased attention this problem is receiving. Spouse abuse is now a public issue. The seemingly unpredictable nature of the abuser has been stressed in this study; however, certain characteristics of this violence are being pieced together nationally as researchers are replicating previous findings, making new discoveries, and publicizing family violence. Checklists and etiology can predict high tendencies for violence but the underlying reasons are vague. We do not know why stressors cause some men, but not others, to become violent.

The suggestions offered in this paper are simple to implement. They suggest interagency coordination, stress educational programs, and are within present legal boundaries. One thing agencies can do is to reduce the isolation and ignorance of abuse victims; crisis information must reach those who really need it. By emphasizing the extent and severity of this problem, perhaps, we can educate the young, encourage abused spouses to seek other alternatives, and re-shape public opinion.

Many of this study's findings correlate with classic spouse abuse findings. Certainly violence occurs quite frequently in abusive relationships and children are often abused or witness violence. This and other studies show that the abuser's threatening children or other relatives or destroying the home can motivate a woman to seek outside intervention after enduring repeated personal abuse. Personal data, causal factors, and descriptions of violent incidents help social agencies target programs to high-risk populations. In short, the more we know about the problem, the better we can meet battered persons' needs. Growing public outcry, increasingly effective social agencies, and social changes are helping to expose and reduce spouse abuse. Our cultural apathy towards domestic violence is ending.

Methadone Clinic Treatment Mode And Recidivism Study

June 1981


This study examined the cases of the 152 clients discharged from the Toledo Methadone Clinic during one year's time, with two basic questions in mind.

The first question dealt with the efficiency of "maintenance" treatment mainly of heroin and other opiate users. Did it pay off?

Secondly, the problem of recidivism was examined. Is it a problem? What client groups are high risks? What are the factors involved in recidivism?

One should be aware that quantification cannot reflect all the complexities of the human condition, and that "causes" are difficult or impossible to "prove." Yet close examination can at least lead to inferences that may help in policy planning.

The tables referenced are found at the back of this paper. Table I is a brief client profile.


Racial characteristics are the predominant interesting feature of this data set. while the population of Toledo is approximately 15% Black, in each data group of my study, Blacks have comprised 40-50% of the Methadone Clinic's clientele.

This observation presents several points of interest. First, it would seem to indicate that drug abuse is more prevalent among Blacks than Whites. Keep in mind, however, that employment and economic status are operative variables as well, since most of the whites undergoing treatment are similar in both variables to the Black population.

Secondly, the location of the Methadone Clinic, in the heart of Toledo's predominantly Black area, could inflate the proportion of Black Client's by being more accessible to them than to Whites and other non-Blacks. If transportation is a problem to the clientele, then due to the low economic status of the entire group (including whites), it should be viewed as a problem for everyone.

Is the Methadone Clinic sufficiently reaching minority groups? One must conclude that, since minorities make up less that 20% of the population, and that since nearly 50% of the clientele is from these minority groups, that the treatment facility is reaching them proportionately better that it is reaching others.

In other areas, i.e. education, frequency of drug use, etc., the racial groups are very similar. The Blacks show a slightly higher proportion of non-voluntary referrals. A Payroll Tax Revenue Forecasting Model For The City Of

Toledo: A Summary Report

James P. Lesage and Frederick E. Tank

August 1981


This is a non-technical report which summarizes the main design features and the simulation results of an econometric forecasting model. The model was used to forecast payroll tax revenue for the City of Toledo. It should be emphasized that this report is condensed and omits a great deal of the model's specification as well as the details of the estimation procedures used to obtain the forecast. The report is organized into four sections:

The first section describes in brief the economic theory which provides a theoretical foundation for the econometric simulation model employed to achieve the forecasts.

An explanation of some of the data characteristics and adjustments necessitated by these features are given in section two.

The third section presents the results of testing and evaluating the performance of the model. To validate the model, it was estimated and used in an ex post or historical simulation. This technique involves estimating and simulating the model over a period of time for which the historical data for all variables are available, including the data series generated through the simulation. A comparison of the original (actual) data series with the simulated series is then made to test the validity of the model.

In the last section the model provides estimates of the payroll tax revenue forward in time beyond the estimation period. An ex ante forecast is made on a monthly basis for the period June 1981 through May 1982 and these data are presented in section four.

The results in this section are based on the current payroll tax rate. If a change in this rate should occur, the payroll tax revenue forecast cannot be adjusted directly to compensate for rate variations. The model itself would require further refinement in order to forecast changes in tax revenue attributable to any increase in the tax structure. There is general agreement among economies that tax rate changes tend to, in many cases, alter the economic environment and these possible changes need to be analyzed.

Toledo Housing Study

Stephen Meyer

August 1984


The purpose of this report is to provide useful information on affordable housing for low- and moderate-income residents in the greater Toledo area. Although the focus is on Toledo, the scope of the public housing issue requires not only a discussion of the housing situation in Toledo but also descriptions of public housing programs in other municipalities. Additionally, any discussion of possible courses of action to provide adequate housing requires a discussion of public policy and private sources of aid.

Most of the fact finding for this study was done in academic year 1982-83 while the author held a graduate research assistantship in the Urban Affairs Center of The University of Toledo. The study was carried out under the supervision of Ronald Randall, Director of the Urban Affairs Center and Professor of Political Science.


The financial woes of the United States in recent years, in both the public and the private sectors, have exacerbated the continuing problem of providing adequate and affordable housing for low- and moderate-in-come persons. In the past, Toledo benefitted from a range of federally funded housing programs; but as these programs have been eliminated or reduced, responsibility of housing programs has shifted to states and localities. In addition to funding problems, controversy and conflict often surround subsidized housing programs and projects. Conclusion:

From the above review of successful housing programs elsewhere, certain program ingredients turn up with such frequency that their absence may well spell failure. Any compilation of the minimal ingredients for successful housing programs in Toledo would include:

  1. The use of city CDBG funds and often Section 8 and UDAG funds;

  2. The city spearheading and coordinating housing efforts;

  3. Active participation of the banking community, which also aids in leveraging additional funding from other sources;

  4. Involvement of non-profit community housing agencies, which can increase the scope of the resources available to housing programs;

  5. Financial counseling and home management education efforts, which increase the number of successful participants.

In addition, it is important to determine at the outset the primary purpose of a housing program--is it to help low-income people or to save housing stock? Rehabilitating housing can lead to regentrification of a neighborhood and displacement of poorer residents, who, rather than benefiting from the program, then become its victims.

Toledo might benefit from a nom-profit, public housing organization whose activity is not limited by state or federal statutory restrictions such as labor and personnel agreements, operating procedures, methods of financing, and agency mission. Specifically, this organization needs the flexibility to meet requirements to receive non-government funding from private enterprises and foundations and not be dependent on either the state or federal government. Such an agency would probably be less susceptible to budget cuts than governmental agencies and appears to have a greater chance of maintaining continuity.

Another possible course of action is the formation of a coordinating body utilizing present housing organizations in the Toledo area. Different funding sources, a mix of private and public, might then be sought with the combined expertise of all the organizations. The inclusion of governmental and non-governmental housing agencies could generate greater leveraging power. With agreement on priorities, a more concentrated effort could be made to attack local problems. Some statutory obstacles, such as labor agreement restrictions, might still exist, and sensitivity to the scope of all participating agencies' would have to be maintained.

In short, there are some important considerations for any group in Toledo taking on the goal of providing more low-income housing. First, the issue of how to work together includes determining the feasibility of forming a new organization or working through existing agencies. Another issue to consider is whether to concentrate housing efforts in one location or to spread them throughout the city. The approach used must be determined from the following options: purchase, rehab, and resale (or rent); loan or grant to occupants (or absentee landlords); or a combination. A group needs to research the sources of finding for which it would qualify. Finally, local lending institutions must be encouraged to participate in any low-income housing endeavor.

Last Updated: 6/27/22